Saturday, August 31, 2019
The effect of positive reinforcement of grade 2 students on BEd SCM regarding on their cooperation In class A Research Presented Joanna S. Violators Elaine D. Enduring (BBS Psychology-3) Submitted to: Miss. Melody Dupes (Teacher) SST. Michaels College, Align City February 2013 Table of Content l. Abstract ? II. Introduction a. Reviewed literature b. Concept of framework c. Statement & Hypothesis d. Significant of the study e. Scope and limitation f. Deflection of terms . Ill. Methodology a. Research design b.Materials c. Procedure Abstract Many different teaching strategies have been assessed to help increase the behavioral repertoires of Individuals with developmental disabilities and Outlast This study the effect of positive reinforcement of grade 2 students on Bed SCM regarding on their cooperation in class. The results indicate that the impact of positive reinforcement on their studies will motivate them to study hard. CHAPTER 1 Reviewed literature Behavior modification focuses o n behaviors and behavior changes.RESERVE ACT atÃ https://donemyessay.com/apush-chapter-29/Behaviors are what a person does or says. The purpose of behavior modification is to alp change behaviors that have a social impact on one's life while improving a specific aspect of that person's life (Malingerer, 2008). According to Matter and Goldstein (2001 ), Ã¢â¬Å"All behavior follows a set of consistent rules. Methods can be developed for defining, observing, and measuring behaviors, as well as designing effective interventionsÃ¢â¬ (p. 96). Behaviors have one or more dimensions that can be measured.These dimensions include the frequency or number of times a behavior occurs, the duration or how long a behavior occurs, and the intensity or hysterical force involved in a behavior (Malingerer, 2008). Behavior modification is a field of psychology that analyzes and modifies human behaviors (Malingerer, 2008). It is the consistent application of positive or negative consequences to reinf orce the occurrence of a desirable behavior and/or to reduce the occurrence of an undesirable behavior.As stated by Malingerer (2008), analyzing a behavior meaner to 7 determine the relationship between the environment and that behavior to better understand why a person behaved the way he or she did, and modifying a behavior earns to create and put into place procedures to help people change that behavior. Four major figures in psychology were influential in the development of the scientific principles on which behavior modification, a theory of psychology that has been around since the early sass's, is based.The first major contribution of behavior modification was Edward Thorniness development of the law of effect, in 1911, which states behaviors that generate a positive effect on the environment are more likely to occur in the future (libertine's, 2008). An example of the law of effect pertaining o education is students receiving credit for doing their homework. This theory impli es that students who consistently earn credit for completing their homework are more likely to continue this behavior. In 1913, John Watson started a movement called behaviorism.Watson believed that observable behaviors were an appropriate subject matter of psychology and that all behaviors were controlled by outside events (Malingerer, 2008). Behaviorism can be witnessed in schools when students who live in abusive and/or unstructured environments misbehave because 8 they have to been exposed to or taught socially acceptable behaviors by their parent's. These students' undesirable behaviors are often a result of negative, unhealthy events that take place in their homes.In the mid-sass's, Ivan Pavlov's experiments discovered the basic process of respondent conditioning (Malingerer, 2008). Respondent conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, pairs a stimulus and response that occurs naturally with another stimulus to elicit a response that does not occur naturally. This the ory is demonstrated in the classroom when teachers use the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"give me fiveÃ¢â¬ . This specific behavior management technique is used to quickly and quietly cue students to stop what they are doing.Students are expected to give the teacher their undivided attention while he or she speaks to the class. Teachers who implement this technique have conditioned their students to behave in a specific manner which is unrelated to the usual meaning of the statement. B. F. Skinner is considered to be one of the most influential sass's, Skinner expanded the field of behaviorism first developed by Watson by laying out the principles of operant condition which claims that the 9 consequence of a behavior controls the future occurrence of that behavior (?FL alternative, 2008).Skinner's work has influenced the field of education, as well as the field of psychology. He believed that positive reinforcement was more effective than punishment when trying to change and establish behavior s. Through his work, Skinner identified five main obstacles to learning. These obstacles are a fear of failure, the task is too long and complicated, the task lacks directions, clarity in the directions is lacking, and there is little or no positive reinforcement (Frisson, 2008). Skinner also recognized that people can be taught age-appropriate skills using the following techniques.These techniques are giving the learner immediate feedback, breaking tasks down into small steps, repeating the directions as many times as possible, working from the most simple to the most complex tasks, and giving positive reinforcement (Frisson, 2008). Behavior modification is used in many areas to assist in changing people's problematic behaviors. These behaviors are considered to be socially unacceptable and inappropriate for one's age and/or ability. Additionally, these behaviors are often disruptive to one's life.Malingerer (2008) noted that,Ã¢â¬ A wealth of research in behavior modification de monstrates that these 10 behaviors often can be controlled or eliminated with behavioral interventionÃ¢â¬ One field that consistently uses behavior modification is education, especially in the areas of classroom management and teaching students with special needs. The field of developmental disabilities has received more behavior modification research than any other area (Malingerer, 2008), as individuals with disabilities often have behavioral deficits that are able to be overcome with the use of behavior edification.Behavior modification continues to play a major role in special education. It is used to create effective teaching methods and to control problematic behaviors such as not cot plying with school and/or class rules. It is also used to improve inappropriate social behaviors including temper tantrums, interrupting, and difficulty sharing. Furthermore, behavior modification is used to improve functional skills deficits pertaining to personal hygiene and toileting, promo ting self- management, and training teachers (Malingerer, 2008).Statement of the Problem The purpose of my paper was to explore behavior modification by using rewards to encourage positive, observable behavior changes in my students. Teachers have an opportunity to positively impact their students' behavior, in addition to their education. I wanted to see if the idea of behavior modification was an effective method for teaching and encouraging students' age-appropriate behaviors and social skills.I researched the use of rewards and positive reinforcement with regards to behavior modification by creating a classroom more interacting and participation on the classroom. One aspect of teaching is educators' abilities to effectively manage their students' behaviors. Many teacher education programs expose preserve teachers to numerous strategies for managing students' behaviors because the most challenging aspect of teaching continues to be Wetted and Mercer (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"The area of beh avior interventions in classrooms receives more attention than many other aspects of schoolingÃ¢â¬ (p. 9). This is not surprising as teachers are expected to deal with discipline problems that were once a cause for suspension or expulsion from school since more and more students are being included in public school settings, in part due to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Quinn et al. , 2001). Another area teachers struggle with is whether or not students should be rewarded for behaviors that are expected of them. Some educators believe that it is not their responsibility to provide incentives for students; they feel that this is the Job of parent's.However, research in the area of behavioral skills training claims that feedback in the form of positive reinforcement is essential to teaching individuals appropriate behaviors and expectations (Malingerer, 2008). Wetted and Mercer (2003) note that, Ã¢â¬Å"The most controversial issues in behavior management have been the use of rewards to n- motivate and teach students to follow classroom rules and routines and to complete academic assignmentsÃ¢â¬ (p. 88).The appropriate use of positive reinforcement and behavior modification are important for success in the classroom, as frequent reprimands, low expectations, and infrequent praise often result in students who exhibit challenging behaviors (Morgan, 2006). Educators can use strong classroom management skills to end, or at the very least avoid, an increase in problematic behaviors. Significant of the study This study focused on the impact of positive reinforcement on their studies will motivate them to study hard.It is used to create effective teaching methods and to control problematic behaviors such as not cot plying with school and/or class rules. It is also used to improve inappropriate social behaviors including temper tantrums, interrupting, and difficulty sharing. All of only students were classified as having special needs and were plac ed in my learning resource classroom due to cognitive and/or behavioral deficits that required specialized support from a special education teacher. Many of my students had a difficult time appropriately interacting with adults and peers, especially in the area of manners.These students often required numerous verbal prompts and reminders from adults working with them to use manners. Unfortunately, the previous approach of verbally prompting my students to use appropriate manners did not have the intended positive effect of improving their social interactions. Scope and limitation This study considered the effect of positive reinforcement on the lassoer setting whom we wanted to see if the idea of behavior modification was an effective method for teaching and encouraging students' age-appropriate behaviors and social skills on the particular setting on classroom.Definition of Terms Behavior Ã¢â¬â What a person says or does. Cooperative Learning. Ã¢â¬â Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. Classroom management- A set of skills needed by a teacher to plan, implement, and maintain a learning environment in which students learn decision- Discussion. -There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion.Motivation- A driving force that encourages an action or behavior to occur Positive reinforcement- positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. Reward- Something that is given in return for doing something else. Skills- An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or Job functions involving ideas (cognitive kills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills).Teaching strategy- are the methods you use to allow lea rners to access the information you are teaching. This action research project explored the theory of behavior modification through the use of rewards to promote positive behavioral changes in students with special needs. A classroom behavior management plan was created to observe the effectiveness of positive reinforcement on influencing students' behaviors. This chapter presents the research methodologies used in the study.This includes the research design, sources of data, data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment of data. Research Design The researchers employed the one group must be experimental without reinforcement while the other group is a controlled group that if there is a motivation using positive reinforcement. By using this design, the researchers were able to determine effects of positive reinforcement regarding on their participation in class. The experimental and controlled group was used as a basis of comparison of reinforcement. Materials This will be conducted in a classroom setting
Friday, August 30, 2019
Susan Hill Exploits the Form of the Novel in Ã¢â¬ËStrange MeetingÃ¢â¬â¢ to Present a More Moving Ad Sensitive Depiction of the Corruption of Youth Than R.C. SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Portrayal of This Within His Dramatic Text Ã¢â¬ËJourneyÃ¢â¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬â¢.
Susan Hill exploits the form of the novel in Ã¢â¬ËStrange MeetingÃ¢â¬â¢ to present a more moving ad sensitive depiction of the corruption of youth than R. C. SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of this within his dramatic text Ã¢â¬ËJourneyÃ¢â¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬â¢. How far do you agree? Strange Meeting is a novel that was first published by Susan Hill in 1971. The text powerfully depicts the emotional effect that a life in the First World War could have on youth. Strange Meeting tells the tale of two young soldiers placed in an environment that breaks people.Hilliard is a young man who in the back story has already experienced the horrors of war; this experience has left him to be out of place in a civilian life. Susan Hill tells us of a relationship that Hilliard and his sister used to share with one another, a relationship of which meant they could rely on one another for anything. However, after being exposed to the war, the effects it can have on a person show through. He no longer feel s that he can relate to her, and she sees only a different man when she looks at him now. Raleigh also the perilous effects that the war can have on a, the main character in R. C.SherriffÃ¢â¬â¢s text Ã¢â¬ËJourneyÃ¢â¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬â¢. In this text Raleigh sees a man whom he once looked up to, Stanhope, having been destroyed and turned into a drunk. This reaction to the stress of war was a common one that many men turned to in order to cope with the war- we know that in the war many of the men were young men, and this was the only way they knew would help them to fight the loss of the people they may have lived with all of their lives. Almost all of the young men serving in the war suffered mental scars, and those who survived the war would almost never wholly recover from them. This shows exactly just how devastating the front lines were.Especially for those who were in the start of their lives, to see someone they knew come to the end of theirs so suddenly so young and in such horrific ways. We know that this was not a rare situation for people to be in; this was in fact happening on a mass scale to millions of people at a time. This shows just how insignificant the loss of life was in this time. The officers in both texts depict strong examples of the corruption of youth; however, it is hard to say which one, if any does so in a better way. An argument could be used to say that Sheriff produces a better example of how ast these effects can happen, and he does so in a very strong dramatic way. However, at the same time Susan Hill depicts the effects over a long duration of time, this is shown in a very good way at the start of the novel, when she introduces Hilliard, and says Ã¢â¬ËHe was afraid to go to sleep. For three weeks, he had been afraid of going to sleepÃ¢â¬â¢ this was shows how even after the war, or when a soldier left the war they were still being affected by it. This adds to the knowledge that these corruptions are not something that you can escape once they have taken effect.Both texts show great examples of how they did not just effect the soldier himself; they in fact affected every one they came into contact with especially the soldiers they would be working with and living with as relationships swayed from hatred to that of a family member time-and-time again. More so it affected the families of the solders, as the corruption of youth, caused many families to lose the younger members of their family not always to the war its self but often to the emotional changes that the young men would go through.A perfect example of this is in Susan HillÃ¢â¬â¢s novel when we witness the destruction of a once great bond between Hilliard and his sister, all due to him wanting to block people out of his life in order to reduce the amount of loss he would face emotionally. Sheriff uses a lot of direct dialogue in order to allow the reader to feel the ups and downs that his characters were going through at the time, as well as showing how fast things could change. This meant that the audience was able to experience first-hand what was going through the mind of a soldier faced with the events that happened.Susan Hill however, shows a more in depth look at the emotions and feelings of the men at war. In doing so the reader is able to build up a stronger relation to the characters than in SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s text, as we go through month after month of what the men are going through, seeing every change they experience and every relationship that builds and falls. Doing this allows us to see and witness the changes that the characters experience and go through, it is because of this that we are able to see the dramatic change in the relationship between Hilliard and his family in Ã¢â¬ËStrange MeetingÃ¢â¬â¢ by introducing the characters to us the reader like this he allows us to become more attached to individual characters and the characters on a whole, a lot more than we are able to with Ã¢â¬ËJourneyÃ¢â ¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬â¢. In addition to this, Hill is able to exploit the fact that she is using a novel, over a dramatic text in order to set up an understanding of the character and to produce character backgrounds, in doing this she is adding more purpose and meaning to the characters and the story on a whole. This helps to portray the effects that could be inflicted upon people, by showing us how people are before, during and after the war environment.One of the main examples of the corruption of youth is the way in which the older characters react when they meet the younger newer officers serving alongside them. In Ã¢â¬ËJourneyÃ¢â¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬â¢ this is shown by the way in which Stanhope reacts to RaleighÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival and presence in the trenches with him, and in Ã¢â¬ËStrange MeetingÃ¢â¬â¢ it is depicted to us through HilliardÃ¢â¬â¢s first impressions towards Barton. In the case of Stanhope, he meets a one former friend from school, whom he shared many experiences and who idolised him.Seeing Raleigh causes Stanhope to realise just how much the war has changed and taken away from him, as well as the intense levels on which it has corrupted his youth. This is a great example as to just how drastic some of these corruptions could be. This being, as it shows two young men separated by only a few years of age, who at the same time are worlds apart in how they look at life. Raleigh who has a strong idealistic view of the world and Stanhope who has aged greatly passed what he should be and appears infinitely older than Raleigh, and has even descended to state which all he can do to get him through the days is drink.This is very similar to that of Hilliard and Barton. Barton is new to the war and has yet to experience the terrors or feel the effects of the war on him; he is a younger man who is untouched by the effects of the war. Whereas Hilliard has been exposed for what to him seems like his entire life, he is no longer capable of living out a civilia n life. This has hit him so hard that at the start of the novel, even having been injured and relieved of duty, he wishes for nothing less than to return to the war as he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to live any life without war as its focal point.So when he meets Barton a young man who is the complete opposite to what he has become- untouched, unaffected by the war and what it can do to a person. However, all he wants is his life to be more like Hilliard. He does not realise that Hilliard does not like his life at all. Hill uses the fact that a large amount of the soldiers were uneducated or poorly educated to show Hilliard as a man who takes charge and places a great level of personal responsibility over the younger, more naive men, in this case Barton. he felt suddenly ready to defend Barton, as he might defend a younger boy at school who had blurted out something because he did not yet know the formÃ¢â¬â¢ this is a simile used by Hill to show just how protective and responsible he has become over the younger boy. In giving us a deeper and closer insight into his life, Hill, has been able to exploit this and show us the change that is occurring within him from the cold, emotionless person to someone who is beginning to care about this young boy.The meeting of these two pairs and the forming of these relationships are focal points in both texts that lay down the foundations in the texts. However, the way in which the authors have chosen to depict these relationships varies in both. Susan Hill chooses to show us the bonds that grow and strengthen over time. However, in the dramatic text that Sheriff is showing us, we see just how quickly relationships can be formed in conditions such as the ones these men are facing.This text by Sheriff also shows us how quickly a previously formed relationship can be changed, this is shown when Raleigh meets for the first time since school, his old role model Stanhope. A man who was once everything Raleigh aspired to be, but no w is nothing more than a drunk. This meeting allows Stanhope to realise suddenly to just how great an extent his own youth has been corrupted, and almost destroyed. When Raleigh firs arrives her greats Stanhope, and he replies, Stanhope (In a low voice): How did you Ã¢â¬â get here?From the patterns in StanhopeÃ¢â¬â¢s voice in this quotation, it suggests someone who is hesitant about the situation at hand. And to further this idea, the use of the hyphen this suggests a pause in what he is saying. This expresses his shock, and tension at the arrival of Raleigh which is rendering him almost speechless. Strange Meetings shows an impressive example of the corruption of youth within the war. This is when Raleigh has just finished his first mission as an officer in the trenches.Osborne has just died, and to him he has just lost one of his closest friends and one of the people who he trusted his life with. As a young man who has never, and should have never, had to experience the death of one of his closest friends happening he is destroyed by this and we see a great change in him at this point in Sheriffs play as he goes from an enthusiastic young man who was proud to be a part in supporting his country at war, to a one who has under gone a sudden realisation as to just how futile his role and that of everyone around him is.And he feels as though he is the only one that feels this way and that no one else realises this. This is an argument that takes place between Raleigh and Stanhope, after their meal following the mission. Raleigh: And yet you can sit there and drink champagne- and smoke cigars- Stanhope:the one man I could trust Ã¢â¬â my best friend Ã¢â¬â the man I could talk to man to man Ã¢â¬â who understood everything Ã¢â¬â and you think I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care-This laid back approach to one of their own men and closest friends dying, allows Raleigh to realise that he is not the only one who feels this way and that in fact there are other people fa cing much worse situations like Stanhope, who has lost his best friend and a man who was like a brother to him. And he discovers that these men have themselves realised the loss of their youth and how it has been torn away from them and replaced with this life, filled with nothing but pain and suffering. The only way they know to cover these feelings is to drink it all away.In conclusion, I feel each text brings its own points in expressing and depicting the corruption and deconstruction of youth in the war. Sheriff gives us a closer view into events and characters, as well as a level of intimacy that HillÃ¢â¬â¢s text lacks. He gives us a sharper look and insight into these emotions that were being experienced and shared by the character, including the suffering and death. And due to this way that he has chosen to express these emotions sheriff is able to show an emotional impact that Susan Hill is just not able to achieve in the depiction of this deeply tragic and emotional theme . Word count: 2,241
Thursday, August 29, 2019
BUS305, Competitive Analysis and Business Cycles Mod 1 Session Long Project - Essay Example The organization is likely to bring interesting focus to this economic analysis for few reasons as follows. One is that it is one of the most successful cafÃ © chains operating across many markets. The supply of the organization is common across different markets and customers have derived customer satisfaction through the entertainment they gain from the cafÃ © in terms of food, music, ambiance and the association with the brand. Another interesting fact is that the Hard Rock CafÃ © is currently owned by the Seminole tribe of Florida which comprise of Native American people. This ownership differs from the conventional forms of business ownerships by large firms and individuals. Economic terms carry varying relevance to different organizations. Within this economic analysis, the terms, Ã¢â¬Å"ResourcesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"CostsÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"MarketsÃ¢â¬ will be considered along with their relevance to the Hard Rock CafÃ ©. The term Ã¢â¬Å"ResourcesÃ¢â¬ refers to Ã¢â¬Å"things you need to survive and thriveÃ¢â¬ and as people have infinite wants, the resources available are not sufficient to satisfy all these wants. Thus the resources such as Land, Labor, Capital and Entrepreneurship need to be allocated efficiently if economic agents are to maximize the wants which they can satisfy. The relevance of this to Hard Rock CafÃ © is that they will have limited capital, suitable locations, good managerial and entrepreneurial talent and good human resource and they need to invest these on most optimum business ventures to maximize their economic gains. While the potential to open cafes or hotels all over the world exists, they have presence only in 36 cou ntries which reflects the implication of scarce resources on business. The term Markets in terms of economics is Ã¢â¬Å"any convenient set of arrangements by which buyers and sellers communicate to exchange goods and servicesÃ¢â¬ (Anderton 2002). Relevance to Hard Rock CafÃ © is that potential exists for them as a seller to meet their buyers and
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Research paper - Poetry - Essay Example A close critique of the poem, however, suggests that Jonson may have had different views than those that are assumed of many of his readers. While it might have served him well, as a poet an a man in need of social stability, to praise his apparent social betters, this does not mean that Ã¢â¬Å"To PenshurstÃ¢â¬ was not written from a hidden, disapproving standpoint. Jonson himself was part of a different lifestyle to that of the SidneyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and as such he could see that their luxury was based on a fundamental societal structure that was only perpetuated from ownership of such residences as Penshurst. Jonson, born sometime in 16th century England, grew up in London and claimed himself the Ã¢â¬Å"posthumous son of a ministerÃ¢â¬ (Loxley 8), although experts cannot be sure whether or not this is true. Whatever his father had been, JonsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mother remarried to a bricklayer who despite the general condition of the London working class at the time was literate and had his stepson educated from an early age. With the second marriage of his mother, Ben Jonson suffered socially because of the loss of aristocratic society with which his clergyman father might have affiliated himself; a bricklayerÃ¢â¬â¢s son, although educated, was not expected to keep company with anyone outside this working class ranking and therefore it was with great difficulty that Jonson established himself as an artisan. His success can surely be attributed to an education that was above par: first he attended private school and later a prestigious school in Westminster near Whitehall Palace. Arguably it is the fact that Jonson was educated in the style of a boy from a higher social ranking that not only gave him some perspective of his own place in society but caused him to look at the lifestyles of those he attended school with in a different light. He will have met other boys from wealthier families and whose lot in life would be very different from his own simply because
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
A Broadening Understanding of Islam - Essay Example In the bestselling The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, there is a gut-wrenching scene about a woman being stoned to death because she had not conducted herself according to Islamic law. Another bestseller entitled Reading Lolita in Tehran chronicles a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s book club that must meet clandestinely to read Western books that have been outlawed by the Islamic fundamentalists in power at the time. Texts such as these lead us to believe that Islam is an antiquated and oppressive religion that is forced upon people by their governments. If people do willingly participate in Islamic rituals, media sources often jump to the conclusion that they have been brainwashed to do so. Yet TysonÃ¢â¬â¢s article tells an entirely different story about Muslims in Turkmenistan who risked persecution at the hands of the Soviet government to worship at sacred shrines. Thus the article very much helps to balance out the often one-sided depiction of theocratic states that force fundamentalist Islam onto its powerless subjects. Not only did the article expand my perspective as to the different contexts in which Muslims have practiced their faith, David Tyson also broadened my idea of how Muslims worship. While mosques, prayer rugs and religious observances such as Ramadan are very much part of the image depicted by the media, I was not aware that pilgrimages had so much religious significance. Tyson details the many holy sites that are significant to Turkmens and shows how they played such an important role in preserving Islam in the face of the Soviet Union that sought to eradicate it from their empire.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Conduct on-line research to locate two (2) recent cases (one of child abuse and one of elder abuse). Summarize the case and iden - Essay Example Meanwhile, he kept abusing the child as well. Piskorski used to scald the child with boiling water, and held his hand into the heater. Piskorski also mistreated and endangered the child in many other ways. He was also alleged to have tried to stuff ScheurmanÃ¢â¬â¢s son into the freezer. During the court proceedings, the judge slapped a lash against one of the benches in the court room to explain the way Piskorski used to abuse the little child, as per his understanding of the matter. Dr. Susan Omura, who was appointed as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s emergency physician during the court proceedings, treated the child. After examining the body of the little child completely, Dr. Susan Omura identified numerous marks of injuries. According to her, it was Ã¢â¬Å"one of the most severe cases of child abuse sheÃ¢â¬â¢s ever seenÃ¢â¬ (KPTV, 2010). Sue Robinson, one of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s family members, said she could not recognize him when she first saw the boy lying on a bed in the hospital be cause of excessive swelling all over his body. When investigated, Scheurman told that she was so badly in love with Piskorski that she overlooked the abuse he would offer to her son. Because of her careless attitude, inconsideration and neglect, Scheurman was sentenced to jail for 180 days. In addition to that, she was offered 3 years of probation, and was required to undergo a thorough psychological treatment. Bill Robinson, the lawyer said, Ã¢â¬Å"As much time as he possibly can get. ... He was left to suffer from psychological stress and trauma for the life ahead. Physically abused children may recover injuries and scars on their bodies, but the marks on their mind never fade away. Adult abuse case study: Helen was a girl in mid 20s when the incident happened. She suffers from extreme learning difficulties. She lived in a residential area. On one eve in the summer, as she was alone in her home, she was raped by one of the temporary staff members, who had stayed for the night shift. Because of her learning and speaking difficulties, she did not know how she would narrate her story to others. After a period of 5 months, the care team of Helen found out that she was pregnant. A care professional said, Ã¢â¬Å"They discovered the relief care agency hadn't done the proper checksÃ¢â¬ (Hogg, 2009). In order to identify the culprit responsible for HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, a forensic investigation was carried out. Soon after the investigation opened, the temporary staff m ember was caught. He was an illegal immigrant. The worker got imprisoned and it was considered as HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s success. However, the trauma the woman went through at the time she was raped, the after-rape period and later, when she was declared pregnant was too much for the justification of few years of imprisonment for the rapist. Not only was she humiliated at the time when she was raped, but she would have to live with the memories of it for the rest of her life along with her child. Therefore, such kinds of cases offer the victim both physical and psychological abuse. HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s was only one of millions of cases that happen all over the world every day. Ã¢â¬Å"Women age 12 or older annually sustained almost 5 million violent victimizations in 1992 and 1993Ã¢â¬ (Sound Vision, 2011). In every day work,
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The analysis of international competitiveness of China's auto manufacturing industry - Dissertation Example With the boost in expansion of the industry the international auto industry has become a key sector of the economical growth for each and every country in the world. The auto manufacturing industry has shown a great development and registered a growth rate of thirty percent increase in the last few decades in-between 1995-2005. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s auto manufacturing industry has produced and accounted for a sixty six billion cars, trucks, vans and buses during 2005. The auto manufacturing industry has been the single vast engine of the economic growth in the world. With the deepening development of the economic globalization the auto manufacturing industry has obtained rapid and robust development in the recent years and has gradually established itself as the pillar of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The auto manufacturing industry has contributed immensely towards the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy by means of production and job creation in the economy. As per the reports, a production of the sixty million vehicles paved the way for an employment of about nine million people directly in the production and the manufacturing of the automobile parts. This accounted for over the five percent of the total manufacturing employment worldwide. It was approximated that each direct auto manufacturing job sustained that least five percent of the circuitous jobs in the society resulting in more than a fifty million jobs in the in the auto manufacturing industry. The actual results also meet the approximated figures in terms of the jobs opportunity provided by the auto manufacturing industry globally. In addition the auto manufacturing industry also provided employment opportunities for the in the manufacturing of the related goods and the service industry. The vehicles produced by the auto manufacturer are essential in the functioning of the global economy and to the welfare of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s citizen. The global auto manufacturing industry also accounts for the chief innovator. The industry has developed through a constant research and development process of the technology which in turn facilitated for the cost effectiveness in production. This assures that the technological development in the auto manufacturing industry provides the backbone of a strong economy through the cost effective advantage. Studies showed that the greatest auto manufacturing producing countries had invested in lump sum over their technological research and development wing for a smooth operation in the auto manufacturing sector. The entire world accounted for an investment of Ã¢â ¬84 billion on the research and development wing in the auto manufacturing sector. Auto manufacturing also accounted for a major contributor of revenue in the government sector all around the world making a contribution of more than Ã¢â ¬400 billion (OICA is the Voice Speaking on Automotive Issues in World Forums, 2007). Growing environmental concerns amongst the consumers and the hike in the fuel pr ices are inspiring the auto manufacturing manufacturer to expand the portfolio of the small cars and this make a shift in the production of the automobiles for the future industry growth. This accounted for one of the competitive advantage of the automobile industry. For competing in the international auto manufacturing industry a nation needs to diversify into a new manufacturing model that will
Saturday, August 24, 2019
UK Financial Services - Case Study on Borrowing - Coursework Example Santander UK is an independent division that manages its own operations with a local management team. The bank has its headquarters in London and was opened in 2011. SantanderÃ¢â¬â¢s 123 product range was ranked as the third best banking service in UK in 2013. During the same year, customers ranked the bank as the best financial service provider in UK in terms of customer satisfaction. The Nationwide BS is also an alternative and is a British financial organization ranked as the largest building society in the world. Although the institution specializes in mortgage loans and savings, it also provides services such as credit cards, bank accounts as well as insurance services. In February 2014, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s credit rating stood at A2 according to Moody and A with Fitch Ratings (Wachter, Cho & Tcha 2014, p.46). Santander UK offers The 123 Credit Card that allows customers to use the credit card along other loyalty cards. Additionally, the card allows users to cashback faster with up to three family members who reside near the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s address. Similarly, the card is contactless and its users can make purchases wherever they come across the contactless symbol. When a customer pays his or her balance in full and on time at the end of each month, the service provides them with up to 56 days during which they can make interest free purchases (Rezaee 2011, p.124). The Capital One Aspire Elite credit card accommodates users who earn more than Ã £50,000 per annum. The card gives a 5% cashback on all purchases done within the first 99 days of opening the account. However, this cashback is limited to a maximum of Ã £200. After the above period, users earn 1% cashback for all successive purchases up to a total of Ã £15,000 that increases to 2% for purchases ranging from Ã £15,000 to Ã £50,000. Additionally, a 1.35% cashback is given to users who spend more than Ã £50,000 per annum. However, these rates are
Potential oppotunities n challenges wat doesthe company view as opportunties and minimize challenges - Essay Example The fast changing environment of technology has necessitated the Hewlett Packard to meet the challenges of emerging new technology in mobile. While HP has been a leader in the computer technology and related areas, it needed to be creative in its diversification and introduce new gadgets to compete with its rivals like Apple Inc, IBM, Sony and Nokia. Palm provided HP with the opportunity to gain a competitive edge against its rivals. The three major opportunities that Palm gained through its merger with HP can be described as below: Brand creation is a major marketing technique that has massive support within and outside the business community and management strategy. Ã¢â¬ËBrand building is needed because products are the sameÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kotler, 2005). The brand name ensures that the product maintains a high standard of excellence at a price that a customer is willing to pay for. Therefore, the brand provides the customer with a quality product which satisfies his needs, making it as one of the key reasons that brands still enjoy the popularity amongst its customers and at the same time, attract fresh clientele. HP is an established international brand and a leader in business computing. Palm is handheld computing device with multiple functions. It is an extremely useful device for executives who are constantly on move and who are looking for gizmos which are small enough to hold in their pockets but powerful enough to be used as computer, or phone or even as an entertainment device, as and when the need arises. Globalization has changed the dynamic of the business and today the professionals need to have all the information at their tip while following a hectic schedule. So the smaller the device which can pack such features, better are its chances of capturing this target group. Hence, PalmÃ¢â¬â¢s association with HP would greatly enhance its brand value. Financial considerations are strong motivating factors that promote strategic
Friday, August 23, 2019
Final Moral Dilemma Case Analysis - Assignment Example The patient vocally rejects all prescriptions and treatments. Moreover, the patient is struggling physically and rejects blood withdrawals and intravenous access. The hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s psychiatric team affirmed that the patient was unable to make personal judgments. It was also realized that the patient lacked an authorized custodian to make decisions on his behalf. In this perspective, the government could not locate any relatives or family members. This instance was transferred to our institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s moral panel. The morals panel with the assistance of legal support was capable of putting a non-RESUSITE order. Nursing care was inculcated to medicate the patient by not letting him realize that medical pills have been trampled and blended in his food. The medicines were recommended to relieve the pain and irritation; antipsychotics were prescribed as well (Ferrell, Coyle, & Teton Data Systems, 2010). Ethical Problem and Conflicting Obligations The aspect making this condition an ethical crisis is that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s rejecting treatment is not valued. Moreover, he is getting palliative care without his knowledge. The patient constantly involves physical struggling if anybody touches or attempts to draw blood from his body for medical purposes (Locsin & Purnell, 2009). The patient could allow nurses to redress and bathe him as well as change his diaper. I nursed this patient a couple of instances and developed a feeling that he had full knowledge of what was transpiring around him. The Issues The primary issue is that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision of not desiring some of the treatment methods should have been respected. It was absurd and illegal to medicate the patient without his knowledge. Important Facts The pertinent facts are that the patient should not suffer by indulging him in numerous medical methods that do not appeal to him. What emotions have an impact? As a health care giver, I felt culpable for not regarding his resolution. Moreover, trea ting and medicating him without his conscience made me feel guilty. Conversely, I was calmed down by the fact that his pain was relieved. Identify Key Participants/Stakeholders The prime partakers were primary care providers, patient and the legal/ethics department. Legitimate Decision Maker The hospital is accountable for the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s safety, hence the legitimate decision maker. Who Is Affected and How? The patient is the most affected since he gets sedative treatment without his agreement. The nurses are also affected since they are liable for the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s care. Level of Competence of the Most Affected Individual The level of competence of the patient is that he is mentally disable and has been declared to make right choices. ParticipantsÃ¢â¬â¢ Obligations The task of every healthcare giver is to protect, treat and be the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s supporter. The hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility is to safeguard the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s lawful rights and their safety. The ethic s department accountability is to establish the best way out of this condition without instigating any injury to the patient. Determination of Moral Perspective Participants think in aspects of duties and tasks since the nurses believe in matters of protecting and advocating any patient. The hospital believes in matters of safeguarding all patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ lawful rights. Exhibition of Moral Perspectives The hospital does not instigate or warrant any liabilities in this context whereas the nurses work to protect and devote for
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Extracurricular activity Essay You may not know a lot of people when you start high school. Maybe your friends from middle school are going to a different high school. Even if you know other freshmen, you might feel nervous that you dont know any upperclassmen. How are you going to make friends among this sea of unknown faces? Most high schools hold a freshman orientation before school actually starts. These are helpful not only because you learn your way around the building and get to meet some of your teachers, but you also get to meet fellow freshmen. That way, when you show up on your first day of school, you may already recognize a few familiar faces. When you talk to people at orientation, youll probably find that a lot of them are feeling just like you are. Theyre all new to the school and dont know what to expect. Talking about a common concern with your classmates can spark new friendships. Learning Inside the Classroom How about the workload in high school Ã¢â¬â is it a lot harder? Again, this is something your classmates are probably worried about, too. The work in high school builds on what you learned in middle school, giving you a more advanced knowledge of many academic subjects. So you may find you have more work to do or that its a bit more challenging. But these challenges can make you feel less bored with the usual routine Ã¢â¬â it feels great when youve mastered something really tough. Maybe youll find a new appreciation for biology or discover a passion for literature. If you ever find your work too overwhelming, teachers and tutors are available for extra help. While you have more independence as a high school student than you might have had in middle school, there are still many resources to fall back on if you feel the work is too much. Extracurricular Activities High school also has more extracurriculars than middle school did, such as clubs, music and theater groups, student government, and sports teams. This is a fantastic time to explore your interests and try new things. Who said school has to be all work and no play? These activities may take place before or after school, or during free periods or study halls. Because of this, it helps to sharpen your time management skills in your first year. Extracurricular activities are great, but remember to leave free time for yourself. Everybody needs some downtime.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
A Critique On Rene Descartes Ontological Argument Of all the recurring questions of Man, one of the most persistent is the question of our origins. Specifically the question of what, if anything, caused us to exist. It has been argued by generations of minds, all seeking the definitive explanation of our existence. One such mind was that of Rene Descartes, a brilliant philosopher of his time, throughout and beyond ours. His ideas on geometry and metaphysics, among others, remain influential upon the thinkers of today. In Meditations, Descartes formulates the framework and guidelines of his First Philosophy or metaphysics, where methodic doubt is used to discern the nature of being and the world. Here he describes how we can derive a reliable method that can definitively determine what is certain and what is suspect, and further apply that method to prove the existence of absolute ideas such as God or mathematics. The methods ground-up approach is supposed to provide for the foundations of certain knowledge, and so it does. Descartes believes that after I call into doubt everything that can easily be relegated as uncertain (such as sense dependent data), I am left with mental ideas of things that I once experienced through the senses. Given that a chairs physical existence may be suspect, my idea of a chair may also be suspect in regard of some aspects such as appearance, yet I cannot suspect the fact that I am thinking of scale, quantity, measurement, space, etc. in providing for my mental image of the chair. Hence for Descartes, there are things that are certain regardless of sense experience and it seems mentally impossibly to conceive of them as false. Given this, Descartes develops his reasoning for the existence of God as an all-perfect being. He does this by beginning with an idea that is considered certain and attributing what makes us feel as if something is certain. In this case he considers something certain as something so clearly and vividly perceived that it cannot be untrue. Here he implies then that for something to be true, I just have to have a clear and vivid idea of it and that alone is enough antecedent for its truth-value. He clarifies this by describing the nature of the mind to have clear and distinct knowledge of certain thing to be true because of its basis in something true that is external from the senses. So, when I distinctly and vividly perceive of something I do so in such intensity because of my recall with the higher form of the idea. Descartes then says that one can know that some properties of these higher idea forms can be known to be true because if I know of ultimate idea of a triangle, when I per ceive its three angles to be equal to two right angles, it must be true because I cannot so vividly perceive it as a triangle unless the ultimate nature of a triangle did not contain the predicate of its three angles being equal to two right angles. So then, a property of a clear and distinct object must be true by the basis of its being perceived as also being clear and distinct. Since the concept of a perfect being implies that it contains its own necessary existence, that is, for it to be perfect it must in itself contain all perfections and by extension all expressions of such. For Descartes, because it is clear and distinct that the idea of a perfect God must hold that God has necessary existence, and that if I have an idea of something and I clearly perceive it to have a property then that thing really has that property, then God must exist because Gods existence naturally follows from Gods conception. The problem with this is that because of Descartes logical framework, all it takes for something to exist in the world is to somehow incorporate the idea of existence into the nature of the concept. Also, because all it takes for it to be true is that that I perceive that existence is part of the concept just enough to be vivid and clear. Such that I could conceive of a chair and it would not exist, but the chair were somehow ascribed with a nature of existence such that the chair has the property of existence, and that I clearly and so distinctly perceived it as such, then it would exist. So then, all it takes to create a chair into existence is to somehow be able to build it to the point that I clearly perceive it to be an existing chair. Clearly, we cannot just go around creating chairs out of thin air, so this must not be the case. So then, it should not be so that I can conclude that a thing is existing in the world just by clearly and distinctly perceiving that existence is par t of the things nature. While there must be something that carries its own necessary existence within itself, it should not be so that I am able to ascribe self-necessity to something, as that defeats its purpose. Another similar problem with the Cartesian ontological argument is that just because one knows a perfect Gods nature as having necessary existence, it does not follow that God is in a state of existence. This is because something that is existing, can not necessarily be in existence as a thing. Given that I were to think of the concept of God, and Gods properties, it follows by Cartesian logic that the only thing I can know to be true is that the existence of the concept God, rather than that God is existing in the world. Therefore, when I think of something, I regard it as existing just by the conception of it, regardless of whether the thing I am thinking of exists as such. So existence does not really add to the idea of something because it already exists as one conceptualizes the idea. It can be seen then that Descartes is sneaking that God is existing in the world, when he can only actually observe that there is a subject such as God, and that God-concept is omnipotent, omniscie nt, self-necessary, etc. in the world. For it would be different if there were ways we could empirically observe that God existed in the world. If God existed in the world, then we would be able to observe that a part of Gods essence is that God is existing since it would be obvious to our senses. Given that God was existing, then there would be more perceivable signs of God interacting with matter that are present, even to the point of having an experience of personally watching God affect matter as it is happening. However this is clearly not the case, for we come to our knowledge of God only through the mind, and our current understanding of the physical world. We know that God, being wholly perfect, must then contain all necessary existence within itself, otherwise it would be dependent on another for its own existence and hence not perfect. Clearly this is a logical deduction, which comes from premises that show our collective conception of what an all perfect being is. In othe r words, all we know is that there is a concept of omnipotence- but not perceive omnipotence in reality, there is such a thing as omniscience-but not perceive of omniscience in reality, etc, and that there is such a concept of God who contains all these things by virtue of conceiving Gods God-ness- but no perceive of God in reality. As shown, this is the case in the world, where we can have no relevant or reliable sensory experiences that can show Gods existing in the real world. So then, Descartes is making a logical leap of assumption when he shows that the basis for Gods existing as the fact that God has necessary existence. In making that assumption, he assumes that when I have the full concept of God in my head, as in the idea of God fully and purely, then I clearly perceive Gods necessary existence, and therefore I am supposed to realize that God exists-just because it seems so real to me. Descartes attributes much weight to the feeling that something is clear and distinct, when as it can be seen that it is not enough to perceive a concept as clear and distinct and immediately assume that the concept exists. After all, one can be clear on a concept, and yet that concept could exist in reality or not. In the same way, from being clear that God as existence per se, we can be clear that the concept God as such exists, not that God is existing. The all-perfect being may in fact exist then, but Descartes ontological argument is not enough to be able to expla in how such a being exists in the world.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Analysis Of The Tourism Industry In Pakistan Introduction: Pakistan is a multilingual country with more than sixty languages being spoken. English is the official language of Pakistan and used in official business, government, and legal contracts, ] while Urdu is the national language. Pakistan is a good place for tourism as it has the most appealing and breathtaking views of mountains, plateaus and deserts. It has the high potential to attract a large number of foreign tourists, along with that, Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) had set up 27 motels and 3 restaurants for the convienience of these foreign tourists, PTDC need to intensify their marketing ability in order to attract tourists from countries like, China, Middle East Korea, Japan, and many other countries. Moreover Pakistan government need to take certain actions, in order to promote and acknowledge Tourism in Pakistan, as doing so will not only benefit us financially but will also bring unity, compatibility and harmony among nations. Moreover government also need to encourage private sector to develop tourism-friendly environment which will result in financial stability. Source: PTDC page on mountaineering, http://www.tourism.gov.pk/mountain.html Research methodology: Most of the data obtained for this research will come secondary sources including book, internet, magazine etc but to increase the accuracy of information I will conduct primary research to validate my results from secondary data . Primary research for this assignment was conducted through a telephonic interview with people who are influence by the tourists. I have taken a sample size of 30 people who belong to different places but have one thing in common and that is they have interest in tourism in Pakistan. The sample selected [people who are either potential customer for tourism in Pakistan ir those who belong to promote tourism in Pakistan together with those who earn their living by providing service to foreign tourist. Following are the few questions which I have ask to these people in order to gather the data for my research. How are conditions in Pakistan for foreign tourists Do Pakistan has got enough place for foreign tourist to visit. How is security situation across the country What place would you suggest to foreign tourist to visit Do government of Pakistan taking enough steps to promote tourism Do people of Pakistan welcome tourist in their country In response to first question 70% of people interviewed responded that conditions in Pakistan are good enough to tourist. The condition include security situation but also include infrastructure road network and other conditions while the raining 30% were quall divide for example 15% said conational Pakistan are not favourable for foreign tourist while remaining 15% said they were not really sure. Out of the total sample I have selected 90% people do believe that Pakistan has enough place for many tourist to see and therefore had the other issue such security etc resolve Pakistan has much to offer foreign tourist while 10% people were not sure if Pakistan had enough place to offer to foreign tourist. In response to question of security conditions most people who were outside the Pakistan believe that Pakistan is not very secure country for foreign tourist and that accounted for the 80% of them while remaining 20% whom majority were Pakistanis in United Kingdom believe that Pakistan is though affected by terrorism and other issue but still security conditions in the country are satisfactory enough for the foreign tourist. While remaining people who were inside the country and when whether foreign tourist should Pakistan without risking their security have replied positively. When I ask on few places that people know should be interesting for tourist many people replied by pointing out historical place such Taxila, Mohn Jo daro to sea beeches of Karachi and beautiful natural place in Gilgit-Bilistan. But sadly people who were outside the Pakistan were not really sure the famous places to visit in Pakistan. In response to the question of whether government of Pakistan is promoting tourism in Pakistan whether its domestic tourism or foreign. Almost 70% of people said that government of Pakistan should do more and is not doing enough to promote positive image of the country. While remaining 30% were not sure about the government action to promote tourism. When I ask the question whether Pakistani people welcome tourist almost 90% agree that Pakistani people do welcome tourist either they are coming from other part of the country or from the other of the world. Tourism in Pakistan Due to its diverse culture, people and landscape, Tourism is growing industry in Pakistan, even after considered as one of the most dangerous country in the world, According to British Magazine The Economist. In Pakistan there are number of varieties of attraction that ranges from the ruins of ancient civilization such as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill-stations that attract those interested in field and winter sports. Moreover, Pakistan has several mountain peaks of height over 8,000 metres (26,250 ft), that attract adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially to K2. Many domestic and International tourists visit these areas most often in the month starting from April to September. Tourism has become the source of income for local people. In 2009, Pakistan was ranked 113 out of 130 countries to visit, According to the World Economic Forums Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report (TTCR). Although due to Political instability, suicide attacks, religious conflict, kidnapping of foreigner and uncertainty in the country had badly affected the Tourism throughout the country, especially NWFP, which is currently renamed as Pakhtoonkhwa. Source: Eco tourism: For decades, Ecotourism has become the significant part of the tourism business in Pakistan, as it has offered much tremendous experience along with the stunning mountains of NWFP, attracting number of tourists all over the world for hiking, skating, forest camping, climbing, and exploring the regions natural parks and forests. Pakistan ecotourism destination is unforgettable for those who have ever visited it. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/pk Especially, Swat, Huns, Aruba, Abbott bad, Murfree, Narran and Kahn have yet been known as the ideal tourists spot for both summer and winter season. The snow-peaked mountains, the natural parks and the wildlife in the forests offered a thrilling experience especially for the one who is in search of adventure. The natural beauty of this mountainous scenery has attracted number of tourists generating vital jobs for local people in the hospitality-related businesses. Moreover the Swat valley alone known as the Switzerland of the East has become the centre for 800 hotels. Over 40,000 local people Pakistan employed directly in hospitality. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/pk Impact of war on tourism in Pakistan: Over the past decade, and especially since 2007, the rapid spread of terrorism have not only created uncertainty in the country but also crushed the major sector of economy that causes unemployment, Suicide bombing has become common in everywhere likewise, in shops, markets, public places, business centres and institutes. War and conflict is not limited to a particular city. Its effect is everywhere, anybody can be victim of it. Due to fight between military and religious forces, the NWFP- which is considered 70% of the countrys tourists site, and where millions of people involved in the tourism industry are badly beaten. Continuous war and terror has weaken both the economy and defence of the area. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/tellis_pakistan_final.pdf Due to worst security situation and many of the popular location are converted into war zones, hardly few travellers now visit Pakistan. Although after 9/11 attack in USA, there was a slow decline of tourists in Pakistan but the recent military operations and suicide attacks have been the last nail in the smashing of tourism industry. Since the initiation of the major religious and military offensive, the earning that comes from tourism has been declining dramatically. From Rs 16 billion in 2007, revenues halved in 2008, with a further major fall in 2009. The industry is now facing a $50 million annual loss as a result of the military operations. The hospitality business had experienced a major fall of 40% in room occupancy countrywide. Moreover in NWFP, the insurgency has caused the shutdown of tourist industry. From the last three years the hotels have been closed while the industry has lost of Rs 600 billion. Moreover the transport industry is also going through tough times. Due to huge job losses in tourism and other related industry, majority of the people have migrated to other cities in the search of employment. Moreover the revenue that was generated from tourism has been declined by 11.8% in 2008, while 12% in 2009. The average family involved in tourism business used to earn around 40,000 per mouth and soon after war their earning has dropped to 5000/ month. With more than 25,000 people killed and more than a million displaced in the past year, planned hotel projects have been put on hold. The number of mountain climbers and foreign trekkers has reached zero. Barbarism and bloodshed now run rampant in places which once offered peace and tranquillity. No-one would dream of visiting these places for pleasure now. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/tellis_pakistan_final.pdf Moreover adding to the crises faced by these shattered tourism industry, the federal budget has also been cut by 36 percent for 2010-2011 comparatively with the previous year. The only project this year will be to reconstruction and renovation of existing buildings. There isnt any scheme introduced in order to help overcome terrorism. With the Pakistani political leadership appears to unaware of the real potential of industry, that show little or no prospect in the coming years of tourism attaining momentum that it lost. With the whole industry standing on the boundary of collapse the future looks blank for Pakistan most spectacularly beautiful locations. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/tellis_pakistan_final.pdf Pakistan strategy to control extremism: In the eighth year of the global war on terror, the international community has realized that it is a war of ideas that cannot be won through force. Eventually Pakistan sees that countries today have adopted unique approaches towards deradicalization according to the requirements of their cultural, political situation, and social specification. The aim of these practicing deradicalization programmes in Middle East and South East Asia, at a collective level, is to change the worldview of the affected persons. Private sectors or at some places government and private sectors together adopted the approach of rehabilitation and re-education of the detainees. The reason behind the failing of war on terror on both sides of Pak-Afghan border has also some structural causes such as refusal of Taliban from Afghan government, public perception of Pakistans policies as a key US ally, use of force as a priority option, continued US drone attacks, denial of any relief and transitional justice to the victims of military operation, issue of Afghan refugees, and lack of trust between US, Pakistan and Afghanistan. There is a strong tie between lack of human security and terrorism. Rise in extremism can lead to human insecurity and vice versa. Since independence, government of particular south Asian states have not been providing their people with minimum security. Governments and ruling classes, instead of focusing on dealing with the issues of human survival and development, embarked upon perpetuating their poPakistanr and influence. Subsequently, no South Asian country has been able to free itself from discriminatory and exploitative policies, which led to increased insecurity and to the rising number of communal and terrorist outfits. Even after the problem these outfits have made, no serious action has been taken by the government or civil society in order to diminish rise in extremist trend at the initial stage. All of the regional states are facing the menace of extremism and terrorism in one or other form. http://www.rferl.org/content/Analyst_Defeating_Extremism_In_Pakistan_Requires_Regional_Strategy/1368724.html Currently south Asian region are facing serious security threat which is due to increment of terrorism and extremism. There are various factors that have led towards this situation. The politics of violence and extremism in South Asia is mainly the result of faulty national policies and interference of external powers. The regions vast potential is hostage to unresolved inter-state and intra-state conflicts. In most of the states, the governments (either democratic or military) have failed in providing good governance and solving social problems such as unemployment, social injustice, and poverty. The political culture in these states was unable to meet the imperatives of globalization. In addition, instead of promoting unity and integration (both at national and regional levels) it led to ethnic solidarities and identification with religion and culture. Source : http://www.cssforum.com.pk/general/news-articles/articles/26177-causes-extremism-south-asia-pakistan.html How tourism situation could improve in Pakistan The tourism sector is being overlooked by the successive governments and quite tiny amount is allocated in Public Sector Development Programme that hardly caters for it demands. At global level, Pakistan is wrongly projected in the media and tourists are advised not to visit this south Asian country, which offer four-season tourism opportunities. Security is just not only the issue that has haunt the terrorism but there are also some other factors involved which add to woes of this multibillion dollar trade the world over. These factors involve like, Moreover, Lack of infrastructure, facilities to the tourists, transport, discouraging response from officials circles etc are also some of the areas that are need to be improved.` Until and unless take this (tourism) industry on priority basis, Pakistan are not going to see it flourishing. Pakistan also needs to put in maximum resource in our tourism sector. Pakistan has very diverse and rich culture to offer tourist together with lots of opportunity for adventure tourism as the four provinces and three territories of Pakistan are very diverse and so different that it doesnt look like to foreign tourist that they are in same country with different culture, attractions and different seasons. Pakistan should improve the image of country by first of improving security situation in order to convince foreign tourist that they are safe in the country because in the past the incident like kidnapping of American journalist and attack on srilankan team together with bomb blast in big cities of the country lead to a feeling among the west that Pakistan is not a safe country which is main cause of declining tourism in the country especially tourist from western countries are reluctant to visit Pakistan because of the fear that country is not safe enough. Together with these measure Pakistan need to improve its image by promoting itself on various platforms around the world and together promoting hospitality industry through giving them incentives, Pakistan can catch significant number of tourist looking for adventurism or natural beauty visit Pakistan and contribute significant revenue for the government of the country while providing employment to big number of its population. Security situation for tourist in Pakistan: Pakistan have got a number of places where tourist can visit and these places are safe and secure especially the southern part of Pakistan is very much safe together with northern areas like gilgit and biltistan which are very beautiful and well received by tourist that even though when war on terror going on bu the tourism in northern areas is increasing and every more and more foreign tourist are visiting these areas. The mountain there are very clean and beautiful which catch the attention tourist and that s the prime reason why many people who visited Pakistan will be able to tell you that how beautiful the place which is though not very promote but well received by people around the world. Source: http://www.eturbonews.com/15162/diversity-adventure-story-and-false-media-news-pakistan Every year thousands fo people from the countries such India and china are coming to see the Pakistan and they came here andseee the country hwile goi ng back they told their families and friends about the country which is not told on media.every Pakistan receive a grea t number of adventure tourist who came here because they believe that Pakistan is safe when they return with positive experience they act as advertisement for the country. Source: http://www.eturbonews.com/15162/diversity-adventure-story-and-false-media-news-pakistan The people of Pakistan are welcoming and they give respect to visitors and greet them, show them local custome anad tribal way of doing things which tourist find attractive and interesting. For the adventure tourist especially Pakistan is very good place, as in Pakistan there are huge mountains like the eastern Himalaya and other, these mountain have a height of over 8000 metres and are longest chain of mountain where people can do tracking, exploration, or anything in this beautiful area. Source: http://www.eturbonews.com/15162/diversity-adventure-story-and-false-media-news-pakistan Pakistan is unique ! Situated in the heart of the South Asian sub-continent, it is a country with its own history and cultural heritage, fascinating in its own right. Pakistan was the site for one of the worlds earliest human settlements, the great prehistoric Indus Valley Civilization, the crucible of ancient empires, religions and cultures. The land of Pakistan ranges from lofty mountains in the north, the Karakoram and the Himalayas, through dissected plateaus to the rich alluvial plains of the Punjab. Then follows desolate barrenness of Baluchistan and the hot, dry deserts of Sind blending into miles and miles of golden beaches of Makran coast. Come and Explore the Treasures of Pakistan with us. A visitor to Pakistan is more than a tourist to us he is an honoured guest. Competitive advantage of Pakistan over other countries: In order to compete in this environment every country in the competition to catch tourist have to offer competitive advantage which is the things that country can do best. The possession of competitive advantage is in itself is not enough but countries like industries to communicate it to potential tourist in rest of the world. The basis of competitive is always lie in the resources of the country with prime important is the way that country use these resource in order to get competitive advantage and also with the fact that the resource which formed the basis of competitive advantage are of sufficient quantity and quality. The three major resources for country are financial resource, physical and human resource . While these resource of financial human and other physical are in economics refer as land, labour and capital with the basic skills entrepreneurship. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/pakistan/images/badshahi-mosque-pakistan$24057-10 Its a open secret that northern areas of the country are very rich for attracting the potential tourist where the natural beautify of landscape with their traditional cultural heritage have made a heaven for eco tourist especially. But sadly those northern areas of the country are not very well developed and considered by government and therefore are not very well protected and their natural beauty with their unique cultural heritage couldnt effectively conserved by government of Pakistan till today. Though when considering adventure tourism we think about Nepal and other countries located in the region but Pakistan has enough to offer in adventure tourism such as five out of fourteen mountain peaks of K2 are situated in the Pakistan where there height reach to as much high as 8000 meter and together with this some of the largest glaciers are situated within the territory of gilgit-bilistan as these are largest glaciers outside the polar region. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilgit-Baltistan Mohenjo-Daro was a city located in the south of Modern Pakistan in the Sind Province, on the right bank of the Indus River. It was built between four and five thousand years ago, and lasted until 3,700 BP. It was part of the Harrapan Civilization, and the city had at least 35,000 residents. Mohenjo-Daro means mound of the dead. The city was approximately one square mile in size. In 1922-1927 large scale excavations at Mohenjo-daro Pakistanre carried out by R. D. Banarjee and continued by M. S. Vats and K. N. Dikshit under the direction of Sir John Marshall. E. J. H. MacKay carried out further excavations from 1927 to1931. Sir Mortimer Wheeler made small excavations in1950. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/pk In Balochistan there are many caves for cavers and tourists to visit especially the Juniper Shaft Cave, the Murghagull Gharra cave, Mughall saa cave, and Pakistans naturally decorated cave, the Mango her Cave. Pakistan is a member country of the Union International de SpÃ ©lÃ ©ologie (UIS). The northern parts of Pakistan are home to several historical fortresses, toPakistanrs and other architecture including the Huns and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic Animist community.[Punjab is also the site of Alexanders battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered Pakistans cultural centre and has many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) also helps promote tourism in the country. HoPakistanver, tourism is still limited because of the lack of proper infrastructure and the worsening security situation in the country. The recent militancy in Pakistans scenic sites, including Swat in Khyber Parkton Kawa province, have dealt a massive blow to the tourism industry. Many of the troubles in these tourist destinations are also blamed on the frail travel network, tourism regulatory framework, an d low prioritization of the tourism industry by the government, low effectiveness of marketing and a constricted tourism perception. After these areas Pakistanre being cleared off the militant groups in late 2009, the government, with financial support from the USAID, started a campaign to reintroduce tourism in Swat valley. Pakistan receives 500,000 tourists annually, with almost half of them heading to northern Pakistan http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/pk Strategies to improve tourism in Pakistan: 1. Safety 2. Emergency evacuations 3. Easy bookings of hotels and resorts, train and air services, cabs etc. Tourism is, in the current period, one of the areas that can provide regional and country, a profitable and economic development. Natural and anthropogenic potential which Romania has is necessary to be properly exploited, providing promotion and development of investment programs, able to attract a large number of tourists. The project is presenting a series of specific mountain tourism development through investment programs focused on strategic quality tourism services and protect the natural environment. Airports are the gateway to the country. Facilities and handling provided at the International airports from a lasting impression on the foreign tourist. Our airports suffer from a number of drawbacks despite the vast improvements undertaken in recent years. Sufficient attention has not been paid to the periodic training and education of personnel involved in handling immigration, security and health checks. Personnel at the airports would be encouraged to learn at least one foreign language. Suitable financial incentive will be provided for this purpose. Facilitation counters located in the immigration area will be manned by the personal of PTDC. Accredited representatives of recognized travel agencies would be given identity cards valid up to airline and immigration counters. Baggage handling and clearance system should be improved. The tour operators will arrange insurance cover for the tourist groups handled by them. The existing requirement of police registration and restriction of movement of foreigners would be removed except where specifically required under security considerations. Most tourists visiting Pakistan require visas, which are issued by Pakistani Embassies or High Commissions in other countries. While implementation is satisfactory, visas are an irritant to tourism and add to the cost of a holiday. Visas for nationals from some neighbouring states include considerable restrictions, which puts significant limitations on the development of regional tourism. However, as a part of its policy to facilitate tourism, the government has recently eased restrictions on visas. Source : http://www.tourism.gov.pk/travel_guide.html The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation maintains 21 Tourist Information Centres at various sites across the country; in addition, there are information offices Operated by provincial tourism authorities. However, the standard of service offered invariable and a rationalization of all centres is required, with staff training in foreign languages and customer relations. High-tech Tourist Information Centres of the kind available at Karachi International Airport, with e-mail, fax, and website facilities need to be established at the other major airports and city centres. A website of 1500 pages showing Pakistanis scenic tourist sites and cultural heritage has recently been launched which will greatly enhance awareness both nationally and internationally. Source : http://www.tourism.gov.pk/travel_guide.html There are approximately 41 tour operators in Pakistan that provide destination Management services for domestic and foreign tourists. As their services are critical to the development of international tourism, they need to be treated as a primary sub-sector and supported accordingly. Several areas of regulation impact negatively on tourism, such as the forbidden Photography of bridges and airports, and restricted zones where trekkers require special permission to enter. These restricted areas could be limited and perhaps renamed permit zones. Tribal leaders may be involved in the development of tourism activities in their areas. Although Pakistan possesses world-class tourist attractions, the international tourist Potential of areas such as the Swat Valley has been considerably reduced because of the lack of planning regulations, over-development and environmental degradation. Due to lack of co-ordination between the tourism industry and authorities in charge of natural, historical or religious sites, the tourism potential of such sites is not fully realized. Source : http://www.tourism.gov.pk/travel_guide.html Conclusion: Its the only industry, which needed more and more exploration (Zamar Sheikh) Pakistan is a major tourist attraction because it is blessed with natural beauty and Historical places that can yield huge foreign exchange if properly and methodically Exploited. Tourism could become foreign exchange earning industry for the country. Though Pakistan, has lately taken initiative but still there is dire need of tireless efforts to exploit this sector and to add more dimensions to attract the tourists. No proper attention was paid to harness the God gifted opportunity to earn more and More foreign tourists and foreign exchange which would open up new vistas of Employment in the tourism sector. Moreover the tourists may find and explore the market of their interest in Pakistan. Involvement of private sector was important to give boost to tourism. Private sector Should be given not only tax exemption but they also should be provided with vast Opportunities to invest and they must be facilitated also in terms of money; a network of five stars hotels and motels should be constructed at all tourists spots and tourist Operators may be provided necessary facilities, which on the one hand helped reduce unemployment while on the other harness foreign exchange. Private sector should take initiative to develop and exploit all tourist attraction and Historical location in the province, which unfortunately, has suffered due to negative Concept about its law and order. Good hotel industry acceptable to the international standards would give boost to the Tourist industry, which has suffered because of a number of reasons and one of them, was lack of proper accommodation for local as well as foreign tourists. At present there are about 4000 to 4500 rooms available in five star hotels throughout Pakistan, which were insufficient to the demand. There are problems n Pakistan which prevent this country from attracting its due share of international tourist and therefore to attract the tourist and to boost economy the government of Pakistan have to take serious measure to prevent threat of security to tourist together Pakistan need to promote itself as tourist destination at international forums but these both measure are equally important . The most important aspect security concern of tourist and therefore without taking proper measures to avoid security threat of security. the government of Pakistan should be conscious and careful when people visit this country and must show them how humble and welcoming they are and how interested people in Pakistan are to greet the foreign tourist as well as local tourist alike. Pakistan has truly potential for being a hot tourist spot in region especially for adventure tourism and eco tourism its potential is not unseen but need of the hour is promote itself and to reduce the concerns tourists.
Monday, August 19, 2019
William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream can be considered an archetypal comedy due in large part to the ill-defined characters. Part of what makes this play work so well is that rather than becoming too invested in any one characterÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes and fears or desires and struggles, the audience is simply rooting for things to work out well in general. If the audience became too attached to any one character, they might lose sight of the bigger picture in their concern over, for example, Demetrius remaining drugged at the end of the play, or the disturbing repercussions of Helena marrying a man who only a few acts earlier she had urged to Ã¢â¬Å"Use me but as your spanielÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (2.i.212). The audience is not plagued by these difficulties, however, because the lovers are only one or two shades more real than the characters presented by the Athenian laborers in Pyramus and Thisbe. A couple of the lines uttered in and about the play-within-a-play are very remi niscent of the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ lovers whose trials and travails make up the rest of the work. The most appropriate line uttered by the mechanicals is Ã¢â¬Å"My love! Thou art my love, I think.Ã¢â¬ (5.i.207). This pretty well sums up the situation of the four lovers. Even before any fairy drugs enter the picture, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to keep their affections straight. Demetrius, we learn, Ã¢â¬Å"Made love toÃ¢â¬ ¦Helena, and won her soulÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (1.i.109-10). This comes out as he is in court with HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, appealing to Theseus to force Hermia to marry him. His fickleness is in fact the cause of the entire conflict, since as far as we know the two couples were perfectly happy before his affections were switched. Later in the play, once the two coupl... ...worst are no worse, if imagination amend them.Ã¢â¬ (5.i.224-6). He refers here to theatre, but his statement can be more broadly applied to the idea of love as seen in this play. All four of the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ lovers can be seen as Ã¢â¬Å"shadowsÃ¢â¬ of actual peopleÃ¢â¬âthey exist to be in love, to be in love with being in love, to talk about being in love, etc. They have no function beyond that and really are not capable of much more. The lovers of the play-within-a-play, without trying too hard, can seem to be remarkably similar to Lysander, Demetrius, Hermia and Helena. With just a little bit of imagination, they are in fact Ã¢â¬Å"no worseÃ¢â¬ . The play in Act 5 serves to reflect back an image of what we have just seen that is only slightly distorted, and it is in the smallness of the distortion that we can really understand how ridiculous the events that have just unfolded really are.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison - born February 11, 1847, Milan, Ohio, U.S. d. Oct. 18, 1931, West Orange, N.J. American inventor who, singly or jointly, held a world record 1,093 patents. In addition, he created the world's first industrial research laboratory. Edison was the quintessential American inventor in the era of Yankee ingenuity. He began his career in 1863, in the adolescence of the telegraph industry, when virtually the only source of electricity was primitive batteries putting out a low-voltage current. Before he died, in 1931, he had played a critical role in introducing the modern age of electricity. From his laboratories and workshops emanated the phonograph, the carbon-button transmitter for the telephone speaker and microphone, the incandescent lamp, a revolutionary generator of unprecedented efficiency, the first commercial electric light and power system, an experimental electric railroad, and key elements of motion-picture apparatus, as well as a host of other inventions. Edison was the seventh and last child--the fourth surviving--of Samuel Edison, Jr., and Nancy Elliot Edison. At an early age he developed hearing problems, which have been variously attributed but were most likely due to a familial tendency to mastoiditis. Whatever the cause, Edison's deafness strongly influenced his behaviour and career, providing the motivation for many of his inventions. Early years In 1854 Samuel Edison became the lighthouse keeper and carpenter on the Fort Gratiot military post near Port Huron, Mich., where the family lived in a substantial home. Alva, as the inventor was known until his second marriage, entered school there and attended sporadically for five years. He was imaginative and inquisitive, but because much instruction was by rote and he had difficulty hearing, he was bored and was labeled a misfit. To compensate, he became an avid and omnivorous reader. Edison's lack of formal schooling was not unusual. At the time of the Civil War the average American had attended school a total of 434 days--little more than two years' schooling by today's standards. In 1859 Edison quit school and began working as a trainboy on the railroad between Detroit and Port Huron. Four years earlier, the Michigan Central had initiated the commercial application of the telegraph by using it to control the movement of its tr... ...s for particular technologies. His issued patents are presented here in three listsÃ¢â¬âby execution date, patent date, and subject. The execution and patent date lists are each presented in six parts to make the files less cumbersome. He execution date of a patent application is the date on which the inventor signs the application, and hence is the date closest to the actual inventive activity. However, in his early years Edison did not always rush to his patent lawyer with an invention, especially if there was little competition for the invention or he was feeling broke and unable to pay the various fees involved in an application. In a few cases Edison removed some of the claims from an original application and filed a new application to cover those claims. The execution date of such a patent can be considerably later than that of the original application even though the patent covers designs from the earlier date. The subject lists are necessarily somewhat arbitrary. They are arranged by execution date. A few patents appear in two listsÃ¢â¬âfor example, Patent 142,999 is for a battery Edison developed for telegraphy, and it is under "Batteries" and "Telegraphy and Telephony."
The Things They Carried Ã¢â¬â An AnalysisÃ Ã Ã The Vietnam War was the most technologically advanced war of its time. The combat was more horrific and terrifying in the Vietnam War. There was no front line and no clear way of identifying the enemy because civilians would attack the soldiers as well as the North Vietnamese army. It was an every-man-for-himself, guerrilla war. Because of advances in medicine, more soldiers were able to recover from wounds caused by shrapnel grenades, land mines, concussion grenades, and other weapons. A person could step on a mine and suffer only an amputation of a limb instead of dying. Tim O'Brien survives two gunshot wounds and an infection, which was almost gangrene. In wars past, if gunshot wounds did not kill a person, the infection almost certainly would. The soldiers in The Things They Carried had the task of fighting two Vietnam wars, an internal war and an external war. Externally, the men were fighting the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. Internally, the men were fighting maturity and adulthood. They were desperately trying to remain young through a war that forced them to grow up. Each soldier carried various "weapons" with which to fight the wars. For example, Dave Jensen carried a rabbit's foot, while Jimmy Cross carried a pebble from Martha found "where things came together but also separated." (O'Brien, 9). Lee Strunk carried a slingshot. Henry Dobbins, however, carried two weapons in addition to the regulation army weapons. He carried the nursery rhyme, "A tisket, a tasket, a green and yellow basket, I wrote a letter to my love and on the way I dropped itÃ¢â¬ ¦" which he would sing while sewing stripes on his uniform. He also carried a pair of his girlfriends' pantyhose, which he would wrap around his neck for protection . "He liked putting his nose into the nylon and breathing in the scent of his girlfriend's body; he liked the memories this inspired; he sometimes slept with the stockings up against his face, the way an infant sleeps with a flannel blanket, secure and peaceful." (O'Brien, 129). These weapons allowed these men to dodge Bouncing Betties and gunfire, while enabling them to crawl through dark tunnels and watch friends die everyday. They were able to combat the North Vietnamese, the Viet Cong, leeches, mosquitoes, ringworm, dysentery, gangrene, and wounds from land mines and guns only to wake up the next morning and fight the same enemies day after day. Free Essays - Understanding The Things They Carried :: Things They Carried Essays The Things They Carried Ã¢â¬â An AnalysisÃ Ã Ã The Vietnam War was the most technologically advanced war of its time. The combat was more horrific and terrifying in the Vietnam War. There was no front line and no clear way of identifying the enemy because civilians would attack the soldiers as well as the North Vietnamese army. It was an every-man-for-himself, guerrilla war. Because of advances in medicine, more soldiers were able to recover from wounds caused by shrapnel grenades, land mines, concussion grenades, and other weapons. A person could step on a mine and suffer only an amputation of a limb instead of dying. Tim O'Brien survives two gunshot wounds and an infection, which was almost gangrene. In wars past, if gunshot wounds did not kill a person, the infection almost certainly would. The soldiers in The Things They Carried had the task of fighting two Vietnam wars, an internal war and an external war. Externally, the men were fighting the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. Internally, the men were fighting maturity and adulthood. They were desperately trying to remain young through a war that forced them to grow up. Each soldier carried various "weapons" with which to fight the wars. For example, Dave Jensen carried a rabbit's foot, while Jimmy Cross carried a pebble from Martha found "where things came together but also separated." (O'Brien, 9). Lee Strunk carried a slingshot. Henry Dobbins, however, carried two weapons in addition to the regulation army weapons. He carried the nursery rhyme, "A tisket, a tasket, a green and yellow basket, I wrote a letter to my love and on the way I dropped itÃ¢â¬ ¦" which he would sing while sewing stripes on his uniform. He also carried a pair of his girlfriends' pantyhose, which he would wrap around his neck for protection . "He liked putting his nose into the nylon and breathing in the scent of his girlfriend's body; he liked the memories this inspired; he sometimes slept with the stockings up against his face, the way an infant sleeps with a flannel blanket, secure and peaceful." (O'Brien, 129). These weapons allowed these men to dodge Bouncing Betties and gunfire, while enabling them to crawl through dark tunnels and watch friends die everyday. They were able to combat the North Vietnamese, the Viet Cong, leeches, mosquitoes, ringworm, dysentery, gangrene, and wounds from land mines and guns only to wake up the next morning and fight the same enemies day after day.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The battle of the sexes has been going on since the beginning of mankind. Women were once stereotyped as mere housewives, and the men were labeled as breadwinners. Over time, the title given to the so-called weaker sex has evolved up to par with that of men. Now, they almost stand on equal footing as them. When it comes to leadership though, I believe that females outshine their male counterparts in almost every measure. According to Rochelle Sharpe (2003), it has been approximately twenty-five years since women have started pouring into the labor force and have been trying to be more like men in every way. They now wear power suits and go out on golf luncheons with board executives, but despite them doing all the copying, new research is beginning suggest that men ought to be the ones doing more of the imitating. As discovered in an in-depth performance evaluation conducted on the year 2002 by Hagberg Consulting Group in Foster City, California Ã¢â¬â out of the four hundred twenty-five high-level executives that were evaluated, the women executives got higher ratings on fourty-two of the fifty-two skills measured. Despite all of this growing progress for females everywhere, it is still obvious that men have continued to dominate a majority of the business world. According to the Labor Department, as of the year 2004, only two of the nations five hundred biggest companies have female CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s and of the one thousand largest corporations, only six were being run by women. The reason for this male dominance is simply because women are not given an equal stand as men when it comes to job opportunities. Some businesses view women only as workhorses, or in a sense that they are well suited for demanding careers in middle management, but not for prime jobs. As a result of this, most women get stuck in jobs that involve human resources or public relations Ã¢â¬â posts that rarely lead to the top. (Sharpe, 2003) Both men and women have different styles of leadership, and the actual difference lies between how much listening is done. When it comes to women, they are naturally more open about sharing information and take the time to communicate with people and to hear what their inputs are. It is through this that they are able to gather more information that they can effectively analyze then implement into a plan that uses the best of the ideas presented. On the other hand, men do not take time to stop and smell the flowers Ã¢â¬â instead, they have the tendency to go straight to their point of view and present it in a Ã¢â¬Ëas a matter of factÃ¢â¬â¢ manner. This way, they save time and have everyone agreeing to their plan of action. Well this is because men are not as flexible or willing to interact with others. (Grenberg, 2004) As a result, male leaders may actually tend to force their perspective and use their position influence others. Despite this being the quicker way of getting things done in a non-sloppy manner, it ironically does not make it as efficient as the way the opposite sex works. The manner that females work is by most of the time, simply listening. They take the initiative to gather ideas, research, and so forth from the people they are working with. They do not force their ideas on them, but rather, improve them with teamwork. It is because of this that they are able to produce better outputs and are more effective leaders than males. From the very start, women have often been associated with being a mother figure; therefore, even female leaders tend to be seen more as caring mothers rather than strong-willed heads. In relation to this, there are companies who assume that people skills are not business skills, which basically undermines their strengths. (Fletcher, 2002). Men though, are then associated with being the breadwinners of the family Ã¢â¬â a person who knows how to lead. Male leaders are seen as powerful members of society who have a good head on their shoulders and are tough enough to handle anything that comes their way. The notion that women are not as tough, is only something that is assumed. Although the majority may not be as physically strong as their counterpart, they are on the same level in terms of intellect. Women are associated with mothers, which means that they know how to take care of those working for them. Because they know how to deal with the most energetic of children, they can put their motherly instincts into motivating people Ã¢â¬â they are gifted with inborn people skills. According to the book Disappearing Acts: Gender, Power and Relational Practice at Work, written by Joyce Fletcher in 2002, employees that feel cared about by their bosses or are inspired by them, often produce higher-quality work; and supervisors who know how to deal with conflicts get better results. The conclusion can only be that by taking care of their employees, they are not only taking charge of them subtly but producing greater output in the process. In the present, the number of women that posses high-ranking positions may only add up to a mere fraction of the male population in the same position but it does not prove that the latter is more competent but rather that the former is being viewed as incompetent. The never-ending bias against female leaders has been going on forever, but they have been fighting back little by little. Women have come a long way from being a gender with no equality with the other sex, a gender that had no rights to vote, and a gender that had been stereotyped as a housewife. They have fought hard all these decades, and still continue to fight for the equality that they deserve. But despite the evident inequality, I still believe that female leaders outshine their male counterparts in almost every measure.