Monday, September 30, 2019
Puberty is the period when children experience various physical and emotional changes in their bodies. Puberty comes with psychological effects that affect the teenÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction at school, with their peers and parents. Puberty Puberty is the stage in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives when they experience physical changes through which their bodies eventually develop into adult bodies that are capable of reproducing. It is triggered by hormonal signals that stimulate the growth, function and change in different parts of the body, including the reproductive organs, breasts, skin, muscles, bones, hair and the brain depending on the sex (Allison, 2000). Puberty has various psychological effects within the school context, peers and parents. Within the school context puberty has wide psychological effects like searching identity and role confusion. It impacts their choice of career, sports activities, work schedule and tend to rebellious to the administration. It has been noted that adolescents prefer more liberal schools. At the same time the transition for example to high school has various effects on their academic achievement (Steinberg, 2001). During puberty, adolescents have very high regard for their peers. They measure who they are, their morals and lifestyles against them. Young people struggle to belong and to be accepted and affirmed by their peers, and yet also to become individuals. This desperate need for acceptance may explain why many teens engage in substance abuse and sexual activities. According to Allison, (2000, 54), adolescents tend to heed to advice from peers than from teachers and parents. It is notably however, the relationship between a teen and his or her peers has great impact on their self esteem. According to Steinberg, (2001, 67), parent-adolescent conflict increases during puberty. Conflict has been found to be most evident in interactions between adolescent girls and their mothers and relatively between boys and fathers. Many adolescents feel that the parents do not understand them and that they have different lives and interests. They also feel that the parents cannot guide them properly through this Ã¢â¬Å"stormyÃ¢â¬ period because they do not face the same challenges (Allison, 2000). In conclusion, there need to be a mutual understanding between parents and adolescents as puberty is a sensitive stage and needs to be handled with care by both parties. Only this way that both will minimize the unnecessary conflicts and promote understanding. Reference Allison, Barbara. (2000). Parent-adolescent conflict in early adolescence. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education: Vol 18, No. 2 Steinberg, Laurence. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology: Vol 52: 83-110.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Practitioners give the Users a written conclusion Accountable party must have an accountability relationship with the Users Auditors in an engagement must be independent because they would be perceived as unbiased Definitions:Accounting 0 Recording, classifying, and summarizing economic events in a logical manner for the purpose of providing financial information to have a proper decision making process Assurance 0 An engagement where a practitioner is engaged to issue a written communication expressing a conclusion concerning a subject matter for which the accountable party is responsible Auditing 0 Accumulation and evaluation of evidence about information to determine and report on the degree of correspondence between the information and established criteria Auditing should be done by a competent, independent person.Audit of FIS (Triangle diagram based on the conformity of the FIS with IFRS, GAAS, ASPE) Auditor 0 Shareholder's 0Management Auditor gives their written opinion to the Shareholders Management gives a stewardship relationship (to manage and look after the company for the S/H) with the shareholders Audit Objectives To gain reasonable assurance of FIS To ensure FIS are free from material misstatements For the auditor to express an opinion about the FIS being prepared with respects to the tlnancial reporting trameworks (IFRS Chapter 2 Ã¢â¬â The Public Accounting Profession Quality Control for Firms (Table 2. 2. 9) Leadership for Quality Control Should be present for all audits Quality control procedures should be implemented and communicated to everyone Firms should ensure all personnel are qualified Establish a formal code of conduct Ethical Principles are Required Principles include: Integrity Objectivity Professional Confidence
Saturday, September 28, 2019
OJT PORTFOLIO CDO FOODSPHERE INC. Submitted to: Prof. Ramos Submitted by: Garcia, Jonine A. BSEntrepreneurship 3C-Marketing ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PRELIMINARIES: Title PageÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. AcknowledgementÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ii Table of ContentsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢ â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. iii I. COMPANY PROFILE * VISION AND MISSION * CORE VALUES, OBJECTIVES, PHILOSOPHIES (IF ANY) * HISTORICAL BACKGROUND * ORGANIZATIONAL CHART * KEY OFFICERS * MILESTONES II. SWOT MATRIX III. DAILY REFLECTION IV. SUMMARY OF DAILY ACCOMPLISHMENT V. ATTACHMENTS * Pictures * Photocopy of Student trainee company Id Daily Time Record Original * Certificate of Completion/Training * Student Trainee Evaluation Report * Brochures, Pamphlets * Curriculum Vitae * CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Annual Report I. COMPANY PROFILE VISION AND MISSION _____________________________________________________________________________ We exist to provideÃ TOTAL SATISFACTIONÃ to theÃ FILIPINO CONSUMERSÃ through the development, manufacturing, and marketing ofÃ HIGH QUALITY NUTRITIOUS FOOD PRODUCTS at REASONABLE PRICES. We are committed to do this at all times throughÃ CONTINUOUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, TECHNOLOG ICAL ADVANCEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY,Ã andÃ EXCELLENT CUSTOMER SERVICE.We shall continue to be aÃ LEADINGÃ andÃ GROWING company whose products shall be present in every household. CORE VALUES, OBJECTIVES, PHILOSOPHIES _____________________________________________________________________________ Behind the company excellence are different departments working together towards a common vision. Each division has its individual purpose and its own set of talented and driven people, but all of them ultimately sharing CDO-FoodsphereÃ¢â¬â¢s mission in being the best at what it does. Continuous Product Development As good as the company is at providing, it is just as good at listening.Come product development, CDO strives for the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s total satisfaction. Driven, it searches for new products that would answer the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs as well as uplift their lives with these discoveries. Furthermore, it constantly engages in extensive high-quality research in its constant pursuit for ways of developing and improving the quality of CDOÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Another firm philosophy of CDO is that quality goes hand in hand with technology. In order for the company to consistently give the top shelf products to its customers, it has to constantly invest in the latest technological advancements.With the most creative minds at the helm of these state of the art equipment, only then will superior standards be met and released to the public. High- Capacity Production and Machinery Through CDOÃ¢â¬â¢s advanced continuous cookers, the company is able to produce tons of hotdogs per line per hour. A host of other highly sophisticated machineries also produce heaps and loads of canned meat and fish per month. Unsurprisingly, the company also utilizes a unique emulsification system which processes food exceedingly faster and better High Quality Nutritious FoodOver and above technology, safety and nutrition are also given the highest priority during CDO Ã¢â¬â¢s food production. A guarantee of not only faster manufacturing but also the best product quality must be met at all times. In this light, the company showcases one of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s most extensive quality assurance system. Product quality assessment goes through thorough inspecting processes and stringent lab tests and procedures making sure that CDO serves nothing but products of the premium quality. Advance Storage Plants and WarehousesWhen it comes to food storage and preservation, CDO again devotes its capabilities on acquiring top notch technology to ensure that the products that reach the grocery shelves are of the first-rate quality. Proof of this is how CDOÃ¢â¬â¢s frozen products must go through an advanced blast freezing method and into special cold warehouses to keep the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ temperature at an ideal level in order to preserve their integrity. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND _____________________________________________________________________________ CDO Foodsphere was all started by Mrs. Corazon D.Ong, a simple insightful homemaker and a dietitian. Because of her ability, she then decided to turn this consumer insight into opportunity in 1975. Her creativity, entrepreneurial spirit and excellent skills in culinary arts had led her to prepare food products and later on, sell them to steady and growing clientele. Due to her perseverance, she was able to widespread her food products and became one of the promising food products. What began in 1975 has now flourished into CDO Foodsphere, Inc. Years past and the CDO Foodsphere, inc. were starting to rise. Different named products were produced.CDO Karne Norte, CDO Bibbo! Hotdog, CDO meatloaf, CDO Hamburger patties, CDO holiday ham are just few of the named brands that CDO foodsphere. CDO is now making waves in the Philippine market, blooming into full grown food manufacturing Company in the country. Different strategies had helped this company to elevate their reputation to a household name and also their development of different high quality products have been a key to this reputation that the company have today. CDO is one of the food manufacturers here in the Philippines that truly understand the discriminating taste of the Filipino People.
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Task Force for Corrections - Term Paper Example These approaches have been proven ineffective because they ignored the empirical evidence on what effects offender change. As Latessa, Cullen & Gendreau (2002) note, these practices are examples of Ã¢â¬Å"correctional quackery.Ã¢â¬ Second, after reviewing existing evidence, the report recommends that rehabilitation should be OhioÃ¢â¬â¢s guiding correctional theory. In this regard, this report initially examines the limits of competing approaches. Following this discussion, the case for reaffirming rehabilitation is presented. The principle of just deserts and retribution should be sufficient to deter an offender from committing a crime. This is not saying that incarceration is an effective deterrent to crime or offending. The fact that crimes and offending have been increasing despite the punishments and incarcerations associated with crimes and offending should be adequate enough to show that incarceration has a limited effect on deterrence. According to Muhlhausen (2010), the principle of deterrence seeks to make crimes costly so fewer crimes can occur. On examining the incarceration data of 1972-1993, however, Lynch concluded (1999, p. 359) that imprisonment provides Ã¢â¬Å"no evidence of deterrence at the aggregate level for the USÃ¢â¬ on crimes (1999, p. 359). According to Lynch (1999), the conclusion remained true even if cross-sectional analysis are used for crime and imprisonment trends for 1980 through 1991. Rehabilitation focuses on the character of the offender. Both offenders and non-offenders alike live in a society where they are not observed 100% of the time. Control-oriented programs do not change the character of the offender. On this alone, control-oriented supervision programs will fail as supervisors lose control over the offender, especially after having served prison time. The principle right after just desert and retribution cannot be incapacitation because incapacitation is adequately covered in the principle of just deserts
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Islam and Feminism - Essay Example Viewed as a Western ideology, feminism has both differences and similarities between Middle Eastern Muslim feminists and Western feminists, as well as third-wave feminism. Feminism is largely triggered by cultural and traditional factors and may not be fully compatible with Islam, and many groups are split as to whether Muslim feminists are trying to achieve human rights or their feminist rights like Western women. This paper will research and discuss these aspects of feminism by analyzing Duygu Asena, who was a Turkish Muslim feminist, hence the thesis: Feminism is a Western ideology and it is not compatible with Islam. Even though there is a group that understands and advocates the rights of Muslim women, there is another that hates feminism as an ideology of the Western world that is only concerned with female superiority. It is worth noting that feminism, in the sense of a Universalist faith, gained momentum in the 19th century, with the concept emerging from the Western world. I t has links with the French Revolution, during which women wanted to be considered as having the full status of citizens. In the Middle East and Muslim world in general, feminist movements appeared as women acquired literacy. Asena become an iconic as well as controversial figure in Turkey following her calls to women to escape from oppression, which she likened to a vicious circle. She urged women to fight for their equal rights with men and seek employment as a step towards freedom (Alemdar 1). In Turkey, being a predominantly Islamic nation, this was perceived by most, particularly the authorities, as a contradiction. Her role in feminism may generally have taken a diversion from what feminism in the Middle East has been focusing on. Feminism in the Middle East has basically had an emphasis on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role in Islam, targeting full equality in both private and public life for all Muslim faithful irrespective of gender. The rights they advocate for are founded on Islamic law , also known as Sharia. Feminist ideologies in the Middle East are inspired mainly by faith. Although Islamic feminists in the Middle East are fierce advocates for legislative interpretations and reforms that represent contemporary understanding of gender equality, they also embrace their Islamic faith strongly. However, more recently, Middle East Islamic feminists are also applying secular ideologies in their discourses, albeit strategically, having acknowledged the role played by Islamic feminism as an integral part of the feminist movement globally. This aspect creates the underlying similarity between the ideologies of the Middle East feminism and Western feminism movements. Feminism may be viewed as a global trend, but its uniqueness to every culture must also be appreciated. Western feministÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies are fundamentally different from those of the Middle East, and indeed most other parts of the world, because of the values on which the movements are formed. Being secu lar, most of the Western feminist ideologies stem from Western thoughts, principles and traditions. Western attitudes, which are mostly Christian and
Improving Performance through Learning,coaching and development - Essay Example As a response to the need for better, bigger, quicker and cost effective communication, call centres are continually introducing improved infrastructures and more advanced technologies. This has resulted to an environment where the call length is measured in seconds, and overt and covert monitoring systems that make certain compliance of employees to precise operating procedures (Holdsworth & Cartwright, 2003, p. 131). Such a setting is what Endeavour communication firm in the UK is trying to adopt. The paper will discuss the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation from a phone based call centre to a multichannel service offering centre. This requires coming up with a comprehensive training and development framework. The paper will highlight the basic skills and competencies that will form the basis of the new programme, where the training managers and their team have an assignment of designing and delivering a 4-week training and intervention, which will make sure all the front line staff are fully competent with the new systems and procedures before the launch of the new multi-channel call centre. It will further outline a proposal for training intervention, a description of how the programme would be implemented to meet the specific requirements, and lastly, discuss how reinforcement of the initiative would be done and evaluation of the programme to make sure that the learning outcomes have been realised. Identification of training and development needs Endeavour is an outsourcing provider operating customer contact centres both in the UK and abroad. It has three contact centres, two in the UK and one situated in India. Approximately half of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s front line staffs are situated in one modern call centre. The firm does its recruitment and selection from the local labour pool. Consequently, the firm strives to embark on a major challenge of altering the business model from that of a predominantly phone based call centre to a multichannel service offering. As a consequence, the core drivers of a training and development program for an outsourcing firm like Endeavour include: shifts in customer tastes and preferences, new and challenging business opportunities, technology advancements, and management planning (Garavan, Hogan, & OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell, 2003, p.21-23). The firm required to train and develop its employees because clients have numerous channels for communication. Therefore, it was crucial for the contact centre to provide them with a wide range of options to match their requirements, with the major aim being to enhance customer satisfaction. The range of channels consisted of the following: phone, web chat, fax, email, social media, internet, call queuing, and call back. Consequently, the front-line staffs of Endeavour needed to be trained on key board entry skills, call handling and product knowledge to be fully competent in these areas. Since the firm was launching a new product, this signifies that it was targeting a new market. T his new market consisted of customers who were fond of using the phone, email, social media, and internet among many others. This would result to issues coming up such as mismatch of skills. Therefore, this need for additional training and development was as result of taking up new business opportunities. The refurbishment of the on-site classrooms and training resources led to the installation of special technology system that
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Marginal revenue in market economies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 138
Marginal revenue in market economies - Essay Example The first component is the marginal revenue (MR), which is the extra profit gained on top of the marginal profit when the output quantity is increased (Samuelson & Marks, 44). This means that every increase in output generates further revenue. The second component is the marginal cost (MC), which is the extra amount that is needed to produce an extra quantity (Samuelson & Marks, 45). Usually, this figure is constant for every additional unit of output. Thus far, the profit made by firms is arrived at by subtracting,Ã marginal cost from the marginal revenue (MR-MC). The difference is what is called the marginal profit. Nonetheless, firms maximize their profits when the additional MR equals the extra MC. Similarly, firms are said to maximize their profits when their average total cost (ATC) is at their lowest. Hence, it can be deduced that firms maximize their profits when MR equals MC, which also equals ATC (Samuelson & Marks, 47). Accordingly, this analysis is important for the goo dness of market economies because it provides the firms with the most necessary empirical association in market economies. For one, it tells firms to first examine their basic goal, which is profit. This is derived from the difference between MR and MC. Secondly; it informs firms that their decisions on prices and output quantity have the significant impact on their market profits (Samuelson & Marks, 31). Finally, it informs firms that they must make good decisions to balance their demand and cost curves if they are to maximize their profits at the lowest
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Ethical issues in the workplace - Personal Statement Example In their ethical code of conduct, organizations define specific rules related to employment, business, transactions, customers and clients. These rules not only provide a direction to the employees and organizational allies but also set right expectations with the customers, shareholders and clients. These rules also include laws related to employment such as anti-discrimination, employee wages, equal employment opportunities, union rights, workplace safety and security etc. Ethical organizational structures establish strong procedures to address employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ grievances, complaints and other issues. Organizations also specify rules related to organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment and responsibility towards the environment, society and the nation as well as any other governing bodies that it is a part of. Another important element in an ethical organizational structure is its hierarchy, which has to define clear responsibilities to all its employees and should establish rules of job and accountability as well as reporting structures. Ethical organizations also strive to maintain accurate and complete data related to finance, performance, income tax, and information about their employees in a secure manner. In short, an ethical organizational structure is a comprehensive model of an ideal organization that benefits employees, society and the nations where it
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Level of Employee Engagement and Organisational Performance in the Nigerian Public Secto - Dissertation Example And if yes, then how does employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement relate to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, i.e. positively or negatively? This study aims at investigating the relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance with particular reference to the Nigerian Public Sector, i.e. Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and National Information Technology Development. In order to conduct this study, the researcher made use of primary research and obtained information related to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement level and Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and NITDAÃ¢â¬â¢s performance through survey questionnaire and interviews. The researcher selected 150 respondents for survey and interviewed 10 managers. The results obtained in this study show that there is a positive relationship between employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement and organizational performance. Moreover, it has also been concluded that the employees working in Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and NITDA are highly engaged and t his high level of employee engagement has translated into improved organizational performance. Keywords: Employee Engagement, Organizational Performance, Motivation, etc. ... harts - Descriptive Findings 46 Figure 2: Scatter plot - Regression Analysis 48 List of Tables Table 1: Descriptive Findings Ã¢â¬â Demographics Attributes 36 Table 2: Descriptive Findings Ã¢â¬â Statements Related to Employee Engagement 39 Table 3: Descriptive Findings Ã¢â¬â Statements Related to Employee Engagement 42 Table 4: Findings from Regression Analysis 47 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background to the Context The term Ã¢â¬Ëemployee engagementÃ¢â¬â¢ can be argued to be a comparatively new in managerial practices, as it emerged in the last decade (Bhatia, 2011). The concept of employee engagement can be elaborated as the degree of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment towards attainment of organizational goals and objectives. Engagement of employees can also be regarded as the sense of responsibility developed in employees in relation to their contribution and performance for overall betterment of organization (Schaufeli & Solanova, 2007; Exec, 2007). In the fast changing co rporate world of today, it is strongly felt by the organizations that employees are their assets and it is due to this reason that organizations in general and management in particular have started give importance to the concept of employee engagement (Bhatia, 2011; Adi, 2012). However, the question arises whether employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement has something to do with the performance level of employees? And if yes, then how does employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement relate to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, i.e. positively or negatively? This study thus attempts to explore this relationship between these two aspects of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior in organizational context. 1.2. Research Aim This study aims at investigating the relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance with particular reference to the Nigerian Public
Sunday, September 22, 2019
History of Television Essay Television Broadcasting Malaysian television broadcasting was introduced on 28 December 1963. Color television was introduced on 28 December 1978. Full-time color transmissions of grand launched until officially inaugurated on New Years Day 1982. There are currently 8 national free-to-air terrestrial television stations in Malaysia and 2 national pay subscription television stations in Malaysia. Out of eight television channels, four of them are available in Sabah and Sarawak, and the other four are available only in Peninsular Malaysia.Transmissions in Malaysia were black-and-white until 28 December 1978. First stereo audio broadcasting was introduced in 1985 by TV3. Five out of eight channels does not have 24-hour schedule. 24-hour television was introduced in Malaysia between 13 to 16 May 1989 on TV1. The first 24-hour broadcasting in Malaysia was introduced in 2007 by TV2. Local Programming RTM had local programmings in each state until 1984, and those local stations had been replaced by relay of RTM1. RTM1 had 1 hour of local programming between 1984 to 1992. Today, RTM broadcasts the same version nationwide except in Sarawak and Sabah, which still have some local programmings. RTM have plans to re-introduce the local channels after digital switchover. The local channels had the name RTM and state name, for example RTM Pinang for Penang. Each channel had its own schedule and broadcasting hours, and some programs relay from RTM1 and RTM2 (usually news programs and government programs). Between 1984 to 1992, the local programmings was around 5:00pm on RTM1. For the new local channels, the broadcasting hours are currently unknown. Today, RTM still broadcasting radio in local, but television in national.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Effect of Banking Regulations on Financial Intermediation Introduction Banks have all along played the role of financial intermediaries by channelizing funds primarily from household sector to producing sector and the efficiency and smoothness with which such intermediation is done by banks is one of the prime parameters that determine the economic efficiency and consequent industrial and material progress of a society. Financial intermediation has a cost and that cost is reflected in bank rates and overhead expenditures incurred by banks. Bank rates, however, are not determined in isolation or only from the perspective of profit maximization by the banking sector. These rates are impacted by many other economic and statutory issues pertaining to a particular economy and such issues may vary widely from economy to economy depending upon the administrative attitude towards matters of equanimity in various sectors of the economy, especially the banking sector itself. The general view among experts in this field is that if administrative authorities are in favor of competition, it will lead to the presence of larger number of players in the banking sector that would automatically lead to lower bank rates as competing bankers will vie with each other to attract customers, and will automatically have to become efficient in their functioning in order to stay afloat in such highly competitive environment. So, the economy as a whole would be able to enjoy efficient banking services coupled with comparatively affordable bank rates. However, if entry in banking sector is strictly regulated, it would result in less competition and might also lead to lesser efficiency and almost certainly higher bank rates as the few banks that would be operating in the finance sector would remain assured of clients as the latter would have no option but to approach these few bankers for finance. It must be repeated, however, that these statutory regulations differ so widely between countries and regions that the only plausible method of measuring the impact of such biases and restrictions on bank rates and efficiency would be to consider each instance individually and comparing it with the larger and more generic backdrop of financial efficiency. (DemirgÃ ¼Ã §-Kunt, Laeven and Levine) Impact of net interest margin and overhead expenditures on Cost of intermediation Cost of intermediation is substantially impacted by net interest margin and it would be worthwhile to study in a little more detail as to the exact characteristics and features of net interest margin. Put simply, the net interest margin signifies the income of banks and it consists of the interest a bank earns by lending money to borrowers and the interest it has to pay to its depositors. The exact measure of net interest margin is obtained by dividing the difference between a banks interest earning and interest expenditure by the volume of interest bearing assets. The net interest margin thus is related to the traditional functions of banking industry accepting deposits at lower interest rates and lending them at higher rates of interest. The overhead expenditure ratio of a bank is calculated by dividing bank overhead costs by the total assets of the bank. It is but obvious that the more inefficient a bank the higher would be its overhead expenditure ratio. But overhead expenditures are not only dependent on pure operational efficiency of a bank. It also depends on the prevailing market regulations and freedom or otherwise for players to leave or enter the banking sector as and when the desire to do it arises. The degree of freedom of entry or exit is, quite obviously, determined by the statutory or law enacting authorities of the country. It might be worthwhile to mention at this juncture that though freedom of entry and exit primarily determines the extent of competition in the banking sector, there are other equally important issues that determine the ability of the commercial banks to offer credit to potential customers. It is proper at this stage to take a closer look at these regulatory issues that influence the quantum of credit that commercial banks can offer to customers and the consequent cost of financial intermediation in an economy. There are two principal instruments to impact the bank regulations and monetary policy that are adopted by central bank of an economy to control the availability of credit in the economy. They are: Quantitative Instruments and Qualitative Instruments These instruments, by restricting or allowing commercial banks to offer loans, actually increase or decrease the overhead expenditures of a banking company. It perhaps needs no elaboration that overhead expenditure ratio will get lower and lower as more and more deposits available to the bank are lent outside. The more it can lend from the deposits collected, the higher will be the proportion of interest bearing assets with respect to total assets and quite naturally, the overhead expenses per unit of interest bearing asset will start falling. Thus every banker in his mind wishes for a regime that is very soft on application of these monetary policy instruments. Quantitative Instruments: These are those instruments of monetary policy which affect overall supply of money/credit in the economy. These instruments do not direct or restrict the flow of credit to some specific sectors of the economy. Important ones are: Bank Rate: The bank rate is the minimum rate at which the Central bank of a country (as a lender of last resort) is prepared to give credit to the commercial banks. The increase in bank rate increases the rate of interest and credit becomes dear. Accordingly, the demand for credit is reduced. On the other hand, decrease in the bank rate lowers the market rate of interest charged by commercial banks from their borrowers. Credit becomes cheap; accordingly, demand for credit expands. The Central bank adopts dear money policy when supply of credit needs to be reduced during periods of inflation. It adopts cheap money policy when credit needs to be expanded during deflation. Success of bank rate policy, however, depends on the following factors: Degree of dependence of commercial banks upon Central Bank for loans: If commercial banks have their own surplus funds which they can utilize during periods of high credit needs, their dependence on Central Bank is comparatively less. Degree of sensitivity of banks demand for funds from the Central Bank: Depending on business conditions, commercial banks may or may not be very sensitive to small variations in bank rate. In such situations, bank rate policy may not be a big success. Structure of interest rates in the money market: If non-banking financial institutions in the market vary their interest rates in accordance with what Central Bank expects from the commercial banks, the bank rate policy may not succeed. Overall supply of funds in the market: Bank rate policy may not be a success if non-banking sources of funds are of greater importance in an economy than banking sources. Open Market Operations: Open market operations refer to the sale and purchase of securities in the open market by the Central Bank. By selling securities, the Central Bank absorbs cash balances from within the economy. And, by buying securities, the Central Bank contributes to cash balances in the economy. Cash balances are high powered money on the basis of which commercial banks create credit. Thus, through open market operations, if cash balances are increased, flow of credit will increase many times more, and if cash balances are reduced, the flow of credit will decrease many times more. Success of open market operations depends on some of the following factors: Existence of securities market: There must be a well organized and properly functioning market for the sale and purchase of securities. In the absence of it, open market operations would make little impact on the overhead expenditures of commercial banks. Reserves with the commercial banks: If commercial banks tend to keep own excess reserves with them, they need not buy securities. This is the standard practice in several developed countries; therefore open market operations under such market scenario would hardly ever be a success. Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR): It refers to the minimum percentage of a commercial banks total deposits required to be kept at the central bank. Commercial banks have to keep with the Central Bank a certain percentage of their deposits in the form of cash reserves as a matter of law of the country. For example, if the minimum reserve ratio is 10% and total deposits of a particular commercial bank is $100 million; it will have to keep $10 million with the central bank. If the minimum reserve ratio is raised to 20%, the commercial bank will have to keep $20 million with the Central Bank. When the cash flow or credit is to be increased in the economy, minimum reserve ratio is reduced, and when the cash flow or credit is to be reduced in the economy, minimum cash reserve ratio is increased. Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): Every commercial bank is required to maintain a fixed percentage of its assets in the form of cash or other liquid assets called SLR. With a view to reducing the flow of credit in the market, the Central Bank increases this liquidity ratio. However, in instances of expansion of credit, the liquidity ratio is reduced. Success of both CRR and SLR again depends on the amount of excess reserves with the commercial banks. CRR and SLR would be rendered meaningless if banks are used to keeping high excess reserves. Qualitative Instruments: These are those instruments of monetary policy that focus on the alternative uses of credit in the economy. These instruments direct or restrict the flow of credit to specified areas of economic activity. Of course some qualitative instruments may have the shade of quantitative instruments as well, but they are broadly classified in the following manner: Margin Requirement: The margin requirement of loan refers to the difference between the current value of the security offered for loans and the value of loans granted. For example, a person mortgages an article worth $100 with the bank and the bank gives the person a loan of $80. The margin requirement in this case would be 20%. In case the flow of credit is to be restricted for certain specific business activities in the economy, the margin requirement of loan is raised for those very activities. The margin requirement is lowered in case the expansion of credit is desired. It is but natural that those banks that have more exposure to industries where the government of the country is unwilling to forward easy credit, will face lesser demand for loans and thus will be saddled with more idle funds and hence the overhead expenditure ratio for those banks would start soaring. Credit Rationing: Rationing of credit refers to fixation of credit quotas by Central Bank for different business activities conducted in the economy. Rationing of credit is introduced when the flow of credit is to be checked especially for speculative activities in the economy. The Central Bank fixes the credit quota for different business activities. The commercial banks cannot exceed the quota limits while granting loans. Direct Action: The Central Bank of a country might initiate direct action against the member banks in case they do not comply with its directives. Direct action includes withdrawal of banking license of the erring commercial bank and disallowing it to continue with banking business any longer. Moral Suasion: Sometimes, the Central Bank makes the member banks agree through persuasion or pressure to follow its directives with a view to controlling the flow of credit. The Central Bank has regulatory authority over all commercial banks and hence these banks generally care for and heed to the advices given by Central Bank with regard to expanding or contracting the flow of credit. If flow of credit is expanded, overhead expenditure ratio of commercial banks comes down and if the flow of credit is restricted, the overhead expenditure ratio of commercial banks goes up. If overhead expenditure ratio goes up, the commercial banks are compelled to increase their lending interest rates in an effort to retain the net interest margin. Selective Credit Controls: It refers to the discriminatory policy of Central Banks in favor of or against certain sectors of the economy. Flow of credit to certain sectors (priority sectors) may be encouraged with a view to stimulating the level of activity in these sectors. This is a positive application of Selective Credit Control. Also, the Central Bank may decide to restrict the availability of credit to certain (non-priority) sectors. Generally, during periods of inflation, availability of credit for speculative activities is discouraged. This is a negative application of Selective Credit Control. Commercial banks falling within the ambit of negative Selective Credit Control usually find it rather difficult to maintain their net interest margin. Market structure-Competition in the banking sector and stability of commercial banks The traditional view is of competition-fragility where it is stated that increased number of players in the banking sector reduces market share of each player and negatively impacts both the net interest margin and overhead expenditure ratio. If such an unrestricted entry in the banking sector is coupled with a spate of deregulation of this sector; banks are handed in a platter the opportunity of taking risks that are at times too high and purely speculative. At times banks have been able to manage such risks, but more often than not, such rash risk taking has ended in a spate of bank failures in countries where simultaneous relaxation of entry norms in banking sector coupled with deregulation of banking activities have taken place. Thus proponents of competition-fragility concept argue against allowing unrestricted entry of willing entrepreneurs in the banking sector. However, of late there has been another school of thought that has gained considerable ground and it takes a contrary stand of competition-stability. The second school of thought does not negate in totality the perceptions of the older school of thought in the sense that it does admit that additional competition indeed reduces market equity that leads to greater degree of risk taking by commercial banks by lending at higher rates of interest to potentially risky borrowers in an effort to shore up the steadily declining net interest margin that gets battered by increased competition in the lenders market. But the new school of thought differs in how the commercial banks would brace themselves against such potential high risk customers. The new theory states that the banks will try to cover their high exposure to risk by opting for more equity capital, sale of loans or credit derivatives or opting for a leaner loan portfolio or some other risk mitigation techniques that are easily avai lable. The dominant refrain in this school of thought is that when the banks are aware of the additional risk exposure on account of increased market competition, they will most certainly undertake risk mitigation measures instead of closing their eyes to the impending danger and pray for a miracle or feel smug under the misleading impression that they are too big to fail. The other observation of experts is that prevailing deposit rate controls are essentially strong and act as sufficient disincentives to banks to try and corner a sizeable number of customers by offering irresistibly attractive rates of interest. These deposit rate controls never allow the commercial banks to cross all limits and behave in a totally imprudent manner irrespective of the extent of competition in the banking sector. The other equally important issue is that a bank can hope to increase its franchise power only if it remains in business for a sufficiently long period of time. Surely no commercial bank would risk its long term future, indeed its very existence by dealing in high risk loans and be out of business before getting any real chance of building up a substantial goodwill. Those in favor of competition-stability theory also attempt to view the issue from an opposite perspective. They argue that if there is less competition in the banking sector the established playe rs, secured in their sizeable volume of market share might get tempted to take irrational risk in an attempt to earn excess profit. The perception that they are too secure and, more importantly, too big to fail may make them a trifle reckless and over adventurous while taking loan risks. These apparently inconsequential loan risks may snowball into crises that may put the entire bank in financial jeopardy. (Berger, Klapper and Turk-Ariss) Recent improvisations in financial intermediation market With the recent emergence of financial futures and options there has been a sea change in the market for financial intermediation which was till recently dominated by banking firms that mobilized deposits or issued insurance policies and channelized resultant funds to producer sector. The financial markets have undergone a complete transformation with an unprecedented growth of bonds and stock markets and the emergence of completely novel financial products as various mortgage backed securities and other securitized assets, as well as derivative instruments such as swaps and complex options. One important observation made by experts in this regard is that these new financial products have almost completely been used by financial intermediaries with households showing practically no interest in dealing with these new entrants in financial market. In fact, there has been a dramatic reduction in the participation of individuals and almost corresponding increasing in the level of participation of intermediaries in financial markets. There has also been a silent but thorough change in the nature of players in finance markets. The market shares of traditional banks and insurance companies have fallen while market shares of mutual funds and pension funds have increased phenomenally. A completely new type of non-banking or non-insurance financial intermediary like GE Capital, that has raised capital entirely by issuing security and not taking any deposits, has emerged on the financial scene. In a natural reaction, banks and insurance companies have also brought in certain perceptible changes in their operations. Banks have discovered that by securitizing loans it becomes possible to remove them from the liability side of their balance sheets. Insurance companies have also started shifting from actuarial functions to providing newer and more growth oriented products. It has been observed that a dramatic reduction of individual participation has been almost simultaneous with an increase in better opportunities for individuals to operate in market. This nails earlier theories that financial intermediaries prospered as it is difficult and expensive for an individual to conduct activities in financial market. The truth perhaps lies in the idea that financial intermediaries have actually evolved in becoming really efficient risk managers of both individuals and corporate entities and have an extremely important role to play in economies of future. (Allen and Santomero) Conclusions The Bank regulations can explain the cost of financial intermediation. It has the statute of limitations and regulations on banking activities. These rules can regulations the freedom of bankers to conduct business, and improve the banks net interest margin. From the bank stability, firms access to external finance, bank valuations and financial development. From these points to shows the characteristics centralized control of banking sector and the inflation rate. The more important is the Institutional rules and regulations, market structure. Governments ownership and business cycle fluctuations both these factors can impact the Cost of Financial Intermediation. The impact of market structure is from the competition. Lowering the price to increase the market share and reduce the Cost of Financial Intermediation. References Allen, Franklin and Anthony M. Santomero. The theory of financial intermediation. Journal of Banking Finance 21 1998: 1461-1485. Berger, Allen N., Leora F. Klapper and Rima Turk-Ariss. Bank Competition and Financial Stability. J Financ Serv Res 2009: 99-118. DemirgÃ ¼Ã §-Kunt, Asli, Luc Laeven and Ross Levine. Regulations, Market Structure, Institutions, and the Cost of Financial Intermediation. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 36, No. 3, Part 2 June 2004: 593-622. Diamond, Douglas W. (1984). Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring. Review of Economic Studies 51, 393-414. Levine, Ross (2003). Deny Foreign Bank Entry: Implications for Bank Interest Margins. In Bank Competition, edited by Luis Antonio Ahumada and Rodrigo Fuentes. Santiago, Chile: Banco Central de Chile, forthcoming.
Friday, September 20, 2019
History of African American Voters In the year of 1619, American citizens decided that the new and accepted way of life was to force African citizens into slavery by kidnapping them and bringing them by ship to the land now known as the United States. These groups of people initially were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia. They ended up becoming property and sold as slaves to their white owners. Slave-owners needed and depended on their property to aid in the production of lucrative crops such as tobacco, indigo and cotton. This went on for over 200 years. The northern and southern colonies did not agree on many laws. There was a big disagreement regarding slavery. It brought about the Civil War that took place between 1861 and 1865. Many changes took place. Slavery was supposed to be abolished. When the war was over, African Americans were not readily told that they were free to leave the plantations that they considered to be their homes. Slave masters were afraid that if they left, they would not be able to plant and harvest their crops that they depended on for income. When the freed slaves found out that they could leave the plantations, they realized that they had nowhere to go. Some were satisfied with that and simply set out to go north where they hoped to settle down in any land of prosperity. Others took offers to remain on the plantations and work the land in exchange for food and a place to live. They were not given property to claim as their own. They were only given promises. Everyday life seemed the same. Nothing changed. From about 1900 to 1965, most African Americans were not allowed to vote in the South. When they tried to vote, they were threatened, beaten, and sometimes killed. Many of their homes were burned down or they were thrown off of the land that they lived on. Because most African Americans could not and did not attend school, they were illiterate and were not allowed to vote. Many states allowed only property owners to vote. There were instances where jars were filled with gumballs and the African Americans were told that they could vote if they were able to correctly guess the number of gumballs in the jars. Southern states required African Americans to pay a tax to vote. Laws were enacted that said that people who had gone to prison were not allowed to vote. African Americans were very often arrested on charges for minor offenses to prevent them from voting. Charges were as petty as dropping a peanut shell on the ground or driving with a light out on their vehicle. The police usually knocked the light out after making the arrest. The Voting Rights Act was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on August 6, 1965. It was supposed to help with barriers to voting at the state and local levels for African Americans who could not exercise their right to vote as given in the 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. There were not as many problems involved in trying to vote in national elections. News reports citing stories of voter suppression and disenfranchisement of African Americans during the general election that took place in November 2016 captured headlines for months. It was alleged that African Americans faced some of the same obstacles that they did before the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was enacted. African Americans are not represented as they should be when making decisions of who they want to represent them in government. The field is not level and it sometimes causes apathy when it is perceived that their voices will not be heard. Because African Americans are disproportionately likely to be in prison, they are particularly affected by the restriction of voting rights. According to Recoquillon, C. Sydenham, K., (2017): Felon disenfranchisement laws disproportionately affect ethnic minority communities on a national level. A higher rate of incarceration among the black and Latino populations leads directly to higher disenfranchisement rates. As a Human Services Professional, my starting point towards advocacy and social change would be to comprise a group of employers, community leaders and resources to formally address this problem of voter disenfranchisement and other barriers such as lack of job training and housing for felons when they re-enter society. These are all areas that are decided at the state level. Statewide statistics would have to be completed to show that felony disenfranchisement is severely increased by racial disparities in the criminal justice system. A finding would need to be made to show that these laws could be declared not permissible under certain articles of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. A meeting could then be held to lobby local and state congressional members representing certain districts to ask for changes within the state laws regarding fully reinstating rights of felons in the state to participate in these areas. Things are too reminiscent of the days when African Americans were charg ed with crimes just to keep them from voting and playing a role in society that could benefit their lives. Because of my being a part of this diverse group, African American, some may feel that my advocating for this social change may reflect an unjust preference for this historically oppressed group of people. Also many problems and challenges arise with governmental regulations and perceptions of what state representatives and other resource personnel feel should be addressed by human service personnel. They sometimes feel that getting into matters affecting laws and regulations are not within their scope of practice or knowledge. Due to the complex duties of human service professionals on a day to day basis, ethical standards are provided for guidance when dealing with many situations. The preamble of the Code of Ethics for social workers set guidance to be followed. It is very helpful for review when a supervisor is not available. References Recoquillon, C. Sydenham, K. Humanity In Action Inc. Democracys Punishment: FelonÃ Disenfranchisement. (2017). Retrieved fromÃ http://www.humanityinaction.org/knowledgebase/181-democracy-s-punishment-felon-disenfranchisement
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Rate of Reaction - Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim Investigation, to find out how the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid is affected by changing the concentration. Introduction I must produce a piece of coursework investigating the rate of reaction, and the effect different changes have on them. The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of development of a product during a chemical reaction. It is measured by dividing 1 by the time taken for the reaction to take place. There is five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface area (of solid reactants), and catalysts. I have chosen to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate reaction. This is because it is the most practical to investigate. Dealing with temperatures is a difficult task especially when we have to keep constant high temperatures. Secondly the rate equation and the constant k changes when the temperature of the reaction changes. We have no gases and solids involved therefore it is easy to deal with solutions. Similarly the use of a catalyst complicates things, and if used incorrectly could alter the outcome of the experiment. The theory behind this experiment is that 'Increasing the concentration can increase the rate of the reaction by increasing the rate of molecular collisions.' GRAPH I will place the reaction mixture on a paper with a black cross-drawn on it. When the cross is completely obscured, the reaction will have finished. The time taken for this to happen is the measure of the rate of reaction. We must do this several times, and change the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate. The rate of reaction is a measure of the change, which happens during a reaction in a single unit of time. The things that affect the rate of reaction are as follows: Ã · Surface area of the reactants Ã · Concentration of the reactants Ã · The temperature at which the reaction is carried out Ã · Use of a catalyst Reaction equation is mentioned above but rate equation could only be decided by doing experiments. So the following procedure can be used to carry out the experiment. Plan Equipment Ã · 2 Measuring cylinders Ã · Beaker Ã · Stopwatch Ã · Paper with black cross on it Ã · Sodium Thiosulphate (different concentrations) Ã · Hydrochloric acid (same concentration each time) Ã · Water (different concentrations) Ã · Pipette Prediction I predict that the greater the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Tragedy and Redemption in Beloved "This is not a story to pass on."(1) With these enigmatic words, Toni Morrison brings to a conclusion a very rich, very complicated novel, in which slavery and its repercussions are brought into focus, examined, and reassembled to yield a story of tragedy and redemption. The "peculiar institution" of slavery has been the basis for many literary works from Roots to Beloved, with particular emphasis on the physical, mental, and spiritual violence characteristic of the practice of slavery in the South. A far greater shame than slavery itself is the violence that was directed against slave women in the name of slavery. Slave women bore the heaviest burden of slavery, forced to be not only fieldhands and domestic workers, but to satisfy their masters' sexual appetites. Frederick Douglass wrote that the "slave woman is at the mercy of the fathers, sons or brothers of her master."(2) Slaveowners considered their slave women to be fair game, forcing themselves on their female slaves with impunity, and any resulting children were considered property, to be sold like the calves from a cow. The family institutions of the slaves meant nothing to their owners; the children of slaves were likewise considered property and could be sold at their owners' whim. Schoolteacher referred to Sethe and her children as "...the breeding one, her three pickaninnies and whatever the foal might be..."(279) Slave children often did not know who their fathers or even their mothers were... ...gain. Beloved is an unsanitized picture of slavery and its consequences, a condemnation of the violations that humans impose upon each other. That the presence of Beloved is still felt, long after the players have left the stage, is representative of the scars that remain on the hearts and minds of women, that such horrors could be visited upon their sisters once. Notes 1. Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York, 1987) 337. All subsequent quotes from Beloved are followed by page numbers in parentheses. 2. Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (New York, 1968 ) 60, qtd. in Blassingame 83. Works Cited 1. Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. 2. Morrison, Toni. Beloved. (New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1987)
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to analyse the purchasing behaviour of the younger generation on skin care products. A total of 200 respondents took part in this survey. From the analysis, it was found that Environmental Concerns was ranked the highest among the six variables chosen for the study. The other remaining variables are price, packaging, promotion, branding and self Image. Keywords: Skin care products, consumer behaviour, purchasing behaviour, image, marketing, life style INTRODUCTION Facial skin care product is a personal usage (Rence, 2004). Consumers have many different attribute beliefs toward a product or a service. These bundles of beliefs form oneÃ¢â¬Å¸s attitude toward that product or service. Marketers need to figure out the buying pattern of external and internal factor which affect customers intention to purchase. It is important to comprehend the buying habit of consumer due to changing technology and uncertain future perception and caused the buying pattern of consumer become fickle with every generation (Rence, 2004). Up till now, facial skin care has played a hand in Malaysia market. MalaysiaÃ¢â¬Å¸s consumer lifestyle has been changing due in part to give a rising in affluence and education levels. In order to shape the consumer buying behaviour, the high profile international retailers and the global mass media have also take a role on it. Malaysians are becoming more westernized, sophisticated and cosmopolitan. Sales of skin care products are designed to moisturize, cleans, tone, and otherwise maintain the skin. Eight products are included in this category as depicted in Figure I. Figure I: Sales of skin care product 2002 Source: http://www.greyhouse.com/pdf/rcos_pgs.pdf The potential of youth market has gain an insight of the marketers in todayÃ¢â¬Å¸sÃ¢â¬Å¸ market. Consumers are now more aware of what they are wearing on their bodies, and they are willing to pay for products which enhance appearances and keep them lookingÃ young and fit (Nair 2007). 20 year olds now use anti-aging products (Mouthong et. al. 2008). Consumers do really care about the type of product applied on their face or skin to beautify themselves. In the craze of skin care industry, marketers need to be alert with any opportunity to buzz the market. Marketers have long coveted the youth market for its buying power, 8 International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012 influence on family spending, and willingness to try new products and brands. This show the younger generation are a force to be reckoned with. Hence the purpose of the study is to analyse the purchasing behaviour of skin care products among the younger generation. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The skin care in Asia has growing rapidly in recent years. The main aim of any cosmetic product is, to modify the appearance and/or correct body odour, and/or protect or keep the different outer surfaces of the human body in good condition (Cuadrado 2007). Six out of ten Hong Kong people have a low self-esteem on their facial skin qualities (MVA Hong Kong Limited, 2010). People are starting at a younger age and spending more on facial skin care products and facial treatment services. In Thailand, whitening skin care lotion has been very popular in Thailand for the past few years. In 2003, it commanded 60 percent of the total skin care product market. The leading brand in this sub-sector includes Nivea, Ponds, and Oil of Olay. Skin repair lotion and cream commanded approximately 20 percent (Estee Lauder, Clinique, Lancome, Eucedrin, Oil of Olay); facial oil reduction lotion and cream commanded 5 percent (Johnson and Johnson, Ponds, Oil of Olay), and general skin care and moisturizer commanded 15 percent such as Johnson and Johnson, Baby Mild, Nivea, Ponds, Vaseline, Citra, Care (Mouthong et. al. 2008). Skin care is defined as the maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils. Face is the reflection of an individualÃ¢â¬Å¸s physical appearance. Generally, the beauty of a person is described by the look of oneÃ¢â¬Å¸s face. The industry manufactures products like astringent, face cream, face scrub, face toner, moisturizer, cleanser, etc. Some of these products are used for clarification and purification of the facial skin from dust and harmful rays of the sun while others are used for toning. There is no guarantee of skinÃ beauty retention, but a regular face skin care program is essential for a youthful maintenance. Purchasing decision of consumer sometime is unpredictable. Based on some studies, consumers can be very selective in what they are choosing, which makes consumer-orientation vital for firms in order to gain a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"share-of-mouthÃ¢â¬ (Kotler and Keller, 2006; Van Trijp and Meulenberg, 1996). According to Duncan, (2005), consumer motive is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"internal impulses that when simulated initiate some type of response.Ã¢â¬ Consumer motive is one of internal impulses to fulfill their wants and needs. The marketing mix which applies by most companies no doubt is one of the elopements to meet consumer motive. Consumer motives will be affected by price, place, promotion and product (Peter and Donnelly, 2007). Several authors have agreed that the traditional marketing mix has been defined as a set of controllable instrument to manage the controllable and dynamic marketing environmental and consists of four major (PÃ¢â¬Å¸Ã¢â¬Å¸): price, product, promotion and place (Stanton et. al.(991); McCarthy and Perreault 1993). One vital proposition in research is that the choice objective and the nature of consumption situation are critical because they influence all phases of perceived risk processing through decision making (Aqueveque 2006). People normally purchase facial skin care according to their needs. Since the body skin has a slightly different cellular structure than the skin care product, a facial skin product is essential to cleanse the dirt and grime off easily while at the same time rejuvenate skin cells so that the healthy glow will show. Batra and Kazmi (2004) Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã¢â¬Å¸asserts the broader stages of a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making process that includes problem identification (feeling need of a new car), information search (on internet and showrooms), evaluation of alternatives (comparing brands, for instanceÃ¢â¬â¢ on basis of repute and features), outlet selection and purchase (purchasing selected item) and post-purchase action (satisfaction or dissonance)Ã¢â¬Å¸Ã¢â¬Å¸. As for facial skin care product, the factors that influence the buyer would include: beliefs in product attribute, environmental concern, demographic and personal characteristic which induce the consumer to purchase the facial sk in care product. Lower prices do not really affect the purchasing decision. Evidence shows some consumer even failed to recall the purchase prices (Dickson and Sawyer 1990). Most people understand the basic premise of supply and demand, and realize the impact these factors have on pricesÃ (Bolton et. al. 2003). However, according to Bobinski et al. (1996), consumers tend to purchase products during the discount period. It was reported that over 60 percent of US department store volume is sold at Ã¢â¬Å"salesÃ¢â¬ period. In general, lowering the price is a common method used by many companies. Majority of consumer respond to lower price and quality improvement and also design and packaging of container. Consumers responded to lower price, improve quality and sophisticated container design (Lee, 1993; Lee, 1998; Kim, 2001). International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012 Packaging and design of skin care product plays an important role to grasp the customerÃ¢â¬Å¸s attention. Just as important as the packageÃ¢â¬Å¸s language, appeals could lead consumer to make an aesthetic-based decision which is a vital step in targeting personal care goods to male consumers (Schaefer, 2007). Product with good design and packaging can be attractive and allure consumer make unplanned decision. Consumers not only respond to lower price and improve quality but also to sophisticated container design (Lee, 1993; Lee, 1998; Kim, 2001). Packaging design has an influence in consumers buying decision process. People tend to like aesthetics. Sales Promotion is defined as .marketing activities usually specific to a time period, place or customer group, which encourages a direct response from consumer or marketing intermediaries, through the offers of additional benefits (Peattie and Peattie 1994). Sampling is one of the promotion methods that are used often by companies. Samples are a good way to test market response. McGuinness et. al. (1995) considers product sampling as a sales promotion technique used by marketers to encourage Ã¢â¬Å"consumer trialÃ¢â¬ . The main purpose is to increase product sales by providing incentives to consumer directly. Kim (1998) insisted that discount stores were the popular place consumer considers visiting. Berger and Mitchell (1989) found that indirect experiences, such as advertising, are just as influential as direct experiences in changing the accessibility of attitudes. Advertising arouses consumersÃ¢â¬Å¸ buying decision, influencing them to buy on impulse (Kollat and Willett, 1969). However, according to Rotfield (1999), advertisement failsÃ to persuade consumers to make an initial purchase decision. Hawkins et al. (1998) indicated using Ã¢â¬Å"emotionsÃ¢â¬ in advertisement has gained consumersÃ¢â¬Å¸ attention. Advertisement acts as a language to convey or expose information to public. Using celebrities is another form of advertising. Celebrities are able create awareness and good image of their own in the minds of the consumer (Seno and Lukas 2007). It enhances brand recognition of products and services. Celebrity endorsement can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisementÃ¢â¬ (McCracken 1989). Branding is one of the strong elements to influence the consumerÃ¢â¬Å¸s purchase intention. A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol (such as logo, trademark, or package design) aimed to identify the goods or services, and to differentiate those goods or services from other competitors (Ghodeswar 2008). Brand runs very high in facial products. In general, brand figures outÃ¢â¬ how and who we areÃ¢â¬ (Seabrook, 1999). Trust is a feeling of security held by customers that the brand will meet their expectation (DelgadoBallester and Munurea-Aleman, 2005). Brand acts as a promise of future (Deighton 1992), which can increase the image of the company and also repurchase intentions. About 33% of women switched skin care brands during the past 12 months. They have a high level of curiosity and they wish to try something new (Household and Personal Products Industry, 2007). However, according to Engel et.al (1982), brand loyalty has great influence over the purchase intention. Brand identity is an important factor when making a purchase decision. For the last few decades, concerns about environmental degradation have been increasing (Chan and Lam, 2002; Laroche et al., 2001). Environmental concern refers to an affective attribute that can represent a personÃ¢â¬Å¸s worries, compassion, likes and dislikes about the environment (Yeung, 2005). As consumers have been recognizing the importance of protecting the environment, environmentalism has become a major issue in the marketplace (Brown, 1996; Kalafatis et al., 1999). Consumers are willing to pay higher price to purchase a products/ services that purport environmental friendly. Alston and Prince Roberts (1999) found, in their research on environmental strategy and new product development, that there was a willingness to pay slightly more for environmental improvement in cleaning products than to sacrifice product performance. Self image can be an elementÃ which can enhance the confidence level of an individual. People try to become the being they desire to be by consuming the items that they imagine will help to create and sustain their idea of themselves, their image, their identity (Bocock, 1993). Some people believe selfimage leads to success. The concept of being a beautiful is identified as the key to success (Irons 2001; Peiss, 1993). Self image build up self-confidence and self esteem. People tend to make a purchase when they believe it will improve their appearance. The consumption of products has been identified as the contributing factors to the creation and attainment of desired self-image, identity and self- concept (Featherstone, 1993; Firat, 1993; Kellner, 1992; Mort, 1988; Schouten, 1991; Thompson and Hirschman, 1995). METHODOLOGY A total of 200 respondents have been randomly identified to participate in this survey. Data for this study is collected by means of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire will be personally administered and collected. The independent variables to be tested would be the price, packaging, promotion, branding, environmental concerns and self-image. The purpose of the study is to determine which factors influence the buying behaviour of the consumer. DISCUSSION Respondents were asked to rank which variable was more important to them. 60 respondents (30%) ranked Environmental Concerns as the top variable when it comes to purchasing skin care products (Table I). The findings indicate that consumers do really care about the type of product applied on their face or skin to beautify themselves. There were reports of carcinogenic chemical found in many cosmetic products -including more than half of all baby soaps (Whitney 2007). Internal studies in the cosmetics industry show that many of their products can be contaminated by a carcinogenic impurity called 1,4-dioxane, and the EWGÃ¢â¬â¢s independent study showed that 1,4-dioxane is fairly widespread among cosmetic products. Consumers are concerned with their skin as once it has been contaminated the results will be a disaster for them. (Ranking: 1 = Highest 5 = Lowest) In terms of the correlation analysis, it was found that Environmental Concerns had the highest correlation value (r = 0.887) and since the p value is less than 0.05, this relationship is significant as seen in Table II. As consumers have been recognizing the importance of protecting the environment, environmentalism has become a major issue in the marketplace (Brown, 1996; Kalafatis et al., 1999). Consumers are willing to pay higher price to purchase a products/ services that purport environmental friendly. Branding was found to have a correlation value of 0.627. Brand acts as a promise of future (Deighton 1992), which can increase the image of the company and also repurchase intentions. Brands are also link with the activities of the companies. As such, if their products do not meet the safety regulation, consumers may not want to risk their skin. Promotion was found to have an r value of 0.595. Sales Promotion is defined as .marketing activities usually specific to a time period, place or customer group, which encourages a direct response from consumer or marketing intermediaries, through the offers of additional benefits (Peattie and Peattie 1994). From the average value, consumers are not really influenced by it. As for Packaging, the r value was found to be 0.485. Packaging and design of skin care product plays an important role to grasp the customerÃ¢â¬Å¸s attention. Just as important as the packageÃ¢â¬Å¸s language, appeals could lead consumer to make an aesthetic-based decision which is a vital step in targeting personal care goods to male consumers (Schaefer, 2007). Price has a correlation value of r = 0.431. Lower prices do not really affect the purchasing decision. The findings agrees with the suggestion that consumer sometimes fail to recall the purchase prices (Dickson and Sawyer 1990). Self Image was found to have the lowest correlation value of r = 0.353. Self image build up self-confidence and self esteem. From the findings, it was found that consumers do care for it. The potential of youth market has gain an insight of the marketers in todayÃ¢â¬Å¸s market. Consumers are now more aware of what they are wearing on their bodies, and they are willing to pay for products which enhance appearances and keep them looking young and fit (Nair 2007). From the analysis, it was found that Environmental Concerns was ranked the highest among the six variables chosen for the study. The other remaining variables are Price, Packaging, Promotion, Branding and Self Image. People do care for whatever will be applied to their skins. Skin cancers threats as a result of carcinogenic materials used for the preparation do affect the consumerÃ¢â¬Å¸s intention and decision to purchase the skin care product. After all, to most people, the face is the fortune. If the face is disfigured, it will be for life. No one would want this situation to happen to them. For future research, it would provide a better insight if more variables would be tested. Other variables that can be considered includes: company trends and company image. Besides that, it would be an interesting finding to be able to compare the different purchasing behaviour of people of various age groups. The older and younger generation thinks differently and would rank certain variables differently. An analysis to examine this would be beneficial and also important not only from the academic point of view but also the commercial sector.
Monday, September 16, 2019
ThÃ µ capacity of thÃ µ information supÃ µrhighway has Ã µxplodÃ µd in thÃ µ rÃ µcÃ µnt yÃ µars. It Ã µncompassÃ µs thÃ µ Ã µast and thÃ µ wÃ µst, thÃ µ land and thÃ µ sÃ µa, and anything our human mind could drÃ µam of. This is a good thing, right? With thÃ µ knowlÃ µdgÃ µ of thÃ µ world just on onÃ µÃ¢â¬â¢s fingÃ µrtips, it must bÃ µ good, right? SurÃ µ, if it is usÃ µd thÃ µ right way. A saying goÃ µs likÃ µ this, Ã¢â¬Å"Too much of a good thing is bad. Ã¢â¬ It is truÃ µ. ThÃ µ IntÃ µrnÃ µt doÃ µs accommodatÃ µ a lot of information. In a way, it has too much information. The Internet contains certain information that we DONÃ¢â¬â¢T want minors to have access of. Some of these unwanted information might be pornography, gambling, and some sensitive issues like homosexuality. So what do we do about the stuff that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t minors to see? Do we just make some law and erase it from our precious Internet? No. First of all, this would be impossible to do because there is just too much unwanted information. Second of all, this would defeat the purpose of the Internet. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Online Cooperative Publishing Act,Ã¢â¬ it called the Internet Ã¢â¬Å"the manifestation of humankindÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for limitless two-way interaction with thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"CooperativeÃ¢â¬ internet). Since there is a vague line of what is appropriate and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, why should there be a straight-cut line of what things should be banned on the Internet. There should be a loose regulation on the content of the Internet that would encourage more interaction with this wonderful tool. Instead of the government dictating what minors should see, parents and teachers should be the ones stepping up and TEACHING minors whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong. To maximize the productivity of the Internet, there must be a balance of restriction and freedom. When that balance is reached, the Internet will fully flourish. Ã¢â¬Å"Why should we protect the Internet? Why should we protect all those pornographic websites? Ã¢â¬ you might ask. The Internet is a wonderful thing. Even the heads of our nation, the President and Vice President, believe that the Internet is a Ã¢â¬Å"powerful educational tool for our childrenÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"FamilyÃ¢â¬ internet). It should not be viewed as an evil thing. Its unique ability to link the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge together fulfills any researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. There is no more need to visit dozens of libraries to find everything one needs. Everything is at oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fingertips. Without a doubt, little kids wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need the Internet to do research; they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any research paper due. One mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t forget the Internet is not just for research academically. It could be used to research recreationally. One can research on topic of his interest. A teen male can research about cars. A mom can research on recipes. And a little kid can research on his favorite Disney character. Because of the Internet, a kid can do a lot more things kids before didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the privilege of. A kid can know anything and everything around the world, and even out of this world, without leaving the comfort of his home. Anything, anything at all. If the Internet is censored, a large amount of these wonderful knowledge will not be accessible anymore. Although censorship does not mean a complete ban, there is no measure at the present that can effectively restrict access and still not block out good website. According to a study done by Electronic Privacy Information Center, the filtering programs block 95-99 percent of the material available on the Internet that might be of interest to young people (Ã¢â¬Å"FaultyÃ¢â¬ internet). I am not defending the protection of pornographic websites. Neither am I advocating an easier access to pornography. I just want to point out the fact that websites dedicated to pornography is only a very small percentage of the Internet. If we use the inefficient censorship products out there, we will miss out a lot of the goods that the Internet has to offer. The Supreme Court believes the same. When the Supreme Court struck down the Communication Decency Act in 1996, it found that Ã¢â¬Å"the interest in encouraging freedom of expression in a democratic society outweighs any theoretical but unproven benefit of censorshipÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"FaultyÃ¢â¬ internet). So, should we sacrifice all the goods that the Internet could offer for those measly pornography websites? The Supreme Court shared the same vision for an uncensored Internet when it struck down the Communications Decency Act, a federal law that outlawed Ã¢â¬Å"indecentÃ¢â¬ communications online. In the ruling, it declared the Internet a free speech zone.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
This year in school my son Shem has brought to my attention that Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ will no longer be included in the school curriculum, though I feel this is a poor decision and that Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ is an important classic novel to read in school and should be included in lessons once more. Although Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ has been commonly regarded as a Ã¢â¬Ëbanned bookÃ¢â¬â¢ for explicit language and racism it is very informative and a noteworthy example of coming of age, and the wrongness of racism and stereotypes. For example Atticus, a character in To Kill a Mockingbird, who was a very respectable man in his community, represents a black man in court during a very racist era, doing all that he could to prove he was innocent despite the color of his skin; this shows that not all of the topics regarding racism in the novel are negative. The poor language is also something that unfortunately children are already exposed to in everyday life. I feel that as long as they understand the wrongness of this language and do not continue to repeat it then it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be of much concern. This langue it is important for children to be exposed to, to fully understand what life was like in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. This novel was set in a very important time in American history and exposes old practices that young students may not be familiar with in a more enjoyable and memorable fashion; through the narrations of the character Scout. This may help the children learn more willingly and enjoyably rather than learning from a text book that does not give them as great of an idea of what it might be like for someone to live during that time period. Teachers are also able to teach students about dialect, figures of speech, allusions and other literary devices using this novel. The characters in it are very colorful and developed well as well making a lot of material for discussions about characters. To Kill a Mocking Bird has been ranked by British librarians even before the Bible as a book that every adult must read before dying. The adaptation of the book was also made into an Oscar-winning film which was released in 1962. The novel has became popular with time and the style of writing, the plot and characterization places it in the top 10 books that everyone should read, therefore as students are maturing I believe that they should read Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ and be able to analyze and dig deeper into the book with the guidance of teachers and peers during school. In conclusion I believe that Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ should be included in school curriculum because it shows that racism and stereo types are unjust and not always true, exposes children to important times in history and is a great example of literary devices and character development. Kind Regards,
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The poet Robert Frost has been described as Ã¢â¬Å"the gentle New England poetÃ¢â¬ . This is because of his eloquent and subtle use of New England nature scenes as a metaphor for the human condition. In his poems Robert Frost manipulates nature, humanizing and exaggerating it with the purpose of creating a fictional world for his characters. This use of nature as the active driving force for the poems is vital to Robert Frost's subtle implication of deeper meanings in his poems. Frank Lentricchia noted that in Ã¢â¬Å"BirchesÃ¢â¬ nature Ã¢â¬Å"performs the potter's artÃ¢â¬ and molds ice onto the speaker's figurative birch tree which becomes Ã¢â¬Å"bracken by the loadÃ¢â¬ (line 14). Such a vivid description of the natural process of winter storms leaving behind loads of ice to weigh down trees speaks volumes to the weight the speaker must feel on his life. The poem goes on to allow the speaker to re-live his fantasy and become a Ã¢â¬Å"swinger of the birchesÃ¢â¬ (line 58). In this metaphor, swinging in the birches -nature- is compared to leaving your cares behind and being happy again, in this way according to Frank Lentricchia, Frost Ã¢â¬Å"grants (the speaker's) wish. Ã¢â¬ These acts of nature give an Ã¢â¬Å"original and distinctive vision to the poemÃ¢â¬ says John C. Kemp. This is obvious in Frank Lentricchia's allusion to Mother Nature in his analysis of the speaker's descent from heaven in which Ã¢â¬Å"the blessed pull of the earth is felt againÃ¢â¬ (Kemp). Because Mother Nature is nature herself the speaker feels that nature has a warm pull on man, further emphasizing and humanizing Frost's consistent use of nature. Robert Frost goes even further than creating a metaphor of nature to human condition. The brilliance of the poet brings nature to a humanized level so he can manipulate nature itself to fit his motivation. The purpose of this is to rid the poem of contaminating Ã¢â¬Å"matter-of-factÃ¢â¬ (line 22) verbiage. According to Frank Lentricchia the emotive power of the poem rises uncontaminated from the Ã¢â¬Å"morass of philosophical problemsÃ¢â¬ that harm the poem if the poet decides to turn to knowledge of facts to influence a point (Lentricchia). This theme of a humanized nature is evident in Ã¢â¬Å"DesignÃ¢â¬ in which nature's design Ã¢â¬Å"steere[s] the white moth thither in the night,Ã¢â¬ (line 12) giving nature an active, driving role in the poem's message of the design of nature. Frank Lentricchia also notes that this Ã¢â¬Å"humanized natureÃ¢â¬ indicates a Ã¢â¬Å"human will riding roughshod over a pliable external world,Ã¢â¬ giving Robert Frost's characters a sense of separation from the Ã¢â¬Å"externalÃ¢â¬ world and a feeling of security in nature. In Ã¢â¬Å"BirchesÃ¢â¬ nature stands humanized as the poet allows the speaker to transcend the scientific universe and, at the same time, the poet allows the fictive world to be penetrated by imagination (Lentricchia). This secure world in which Robert Frost's characters live in is not a realistic nature but rather an Ã¢â¬Å"unsanctioned vision of the worldÃ¢â¬ (Lentricchia). An immediate example of this is Frost's Ã¢â¬Å"DesignÃ¢â¬ in which the abnormal Ã¢â¬Å"dimpled and whiteÃ¢â¬ (line 1) spider sits atop the mutant Ã¢â¬Å"white heal-allÃ¢â¬ (line 2). These two extremely rare albino obscurities are likely to never meet each other in the real world; however Robert Frost has idyllically introduced them as companions in nature's supreme design. The pleasant swinging of a boy in a birch tree in Ã¢â¬Å"BirchesÃ¢â¬ is also obviously fabricated because of the perfect, linear oscillations of the boy's swing. This lie is very effective, however because the smooth, downward swing of the speaker back to earth's Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ (line 51) is a redemptive personality inhabited by Robert Frost's Nature, giving man and Nature an intimate connection. The ice on the trees in Ã¢â¬Å"BirchesÃ¢â¬ is also very idyllic. Because of the weight of the ice, the branches may never Ã¢â¬Å"right themselves,Ã¢â¬ (line 16) however the beauty of the ice makes one believe that the Ã¢â¬Å"inner dome of heavenÃ¢â¬ had fallen. Although nature in the form of ice represents life's burdens, it redeems its relationship with man through its manifestation of a birch tree in which it grants the speaker his wish by launching him into heaven and back again. Ralph Waldo Emerson describes man's relationship with nature so deeply that he felt man was Ã¢â¬Å"no better acquainted with his limbsÃ¢â¬ than he is Ã¢â¬Å"with the air, the mountains, the tides, the moon, and the sunÃ¢â¬ (Montiero). Richard Gray comments that in Ã¢â¬Å"Design,Ã¢â¬ Robert Frost's imaginary Nature Ã¢â¬Å"whisper[s] secret, sympathetic messages to us. Ã¢â¬ Because of this perfect relationship established between nature and the characters, caused by the humanization of nature and the exaggerated fantasy world, Frost effectively portrays all of the character's emotions. Robert Frost's Ã¢â¬Å"resource as a poetÃ¢â¬ is effective enough to use nature not for Ã¢â¬Å"shock's and changesÃ¢â¬ to keep the reader interested, but rather as a useful tool to deliver the best message (Lentricchia). Because of Frost's great manipulative talents he is able to do what most poets can't. For instance, Frank Lentricchia believes that in Ã¢â¬Å"BirchesÃ¢â¬ Frost's use of the Ã¢â¬Å"pathless woodsÃ¢â¬ would appear Ã¢â¬Å"triteÃ¢â¬ if any other poets were using it, but for Frost it only adds to the overall feeling of the poem. In Ã¢â¬Å"Birches,Ã¢â¬ nature manifests itself in three beings- the ice on the tree, the fanciful birch which lifts men up into the heavens, and the Ã¢â¬Å"pathless woodsÃ¢â¬ (line 43) which represents life's considerations. As a result, the poem's passionate concluding lines, its closing pronouncements on life, death, and human aspiration, do not give the reader a sense of finality. Instead, Ã¢â¬Å"they are presented as doctrines that we must accept or reject on the basis of our belief in the speaker as a wise countryman whose familiarity with birch trees, ice storms, and pathless woods gives him authority as a philosopherÃ¢â¬ (Kemp) . Therefore, the Ã¢â¬Å"the natural order Ã¢â¬â tree, ice crystal, pathless woodÃ¢â¬ functions as proof of the wisdom of Robert Frost (Kemp). The manipulation of nature in Robert Frost's poetry turns it into a character rather than a withdrawn force; this character shares human emotion and fantasy and creates a very inviting fiction for the poem's characters to live in. Not only does this characterization emphasize Frost's emotions, but it gives meaning to them. Robert Frost's intention with poetry was to express his feelings in an uplifting way, not to pour out his personal struggles in a form of self-pity, and through such an exact setting of a personal nature, he accomplished just that.
Friday, September 13, 2019
People have become overly dependent on technology - Essay Example This was the beginning of the end as far as we know it. The social media networks, email, chat rooms, blogs, microwave ovens, etc., all of these technologically dependent outlets of communication, research, and personal connectivity have change the landscape of human interaction as we know it. We have, as a collective planet, become overly dependent on technology for our existence in our everyday lives. Technology is not something that was created in order to create a slew of technology dependent people. Rather, technology is continuously invented, reinvented, and improved upon by its creators in order to help make our lives easier and allow us to keep in personal contact with the people around us. It was never meant to create a bubble within which one can function without ever crossing paths or personally speaking to another person. That was never the idea behind all of these technological advancements. Rather than creating a beneficial synergy between man and technology, a disconne ct was created between man and fellow man due to the middle man known as technology. Our whole world is totally run by technology. All of our actions are dictated by the existence of a gadget that aids us in doing various activities that we used to be able to do without any help from machines or gadgets, but we managed to complete through the help of other people. From the complicated tasks of laying building foundations for the constructions of a building, all the way to the simple task of taking a hot shower, we have given up even the simplest of human activities to technology in order to do things faster, easier, and better. However, one cannot help but wonder as to what is lost by human beings in this aspect. Surely there is a problem with the over dependence of mankind on technology. Take for example, the case of a medical patient who has come in for a check-up. Say this patient had a CT Scan procedure done. The technologist runs the test without knowing that the machine was de fective. The results come out and show the that patient has a tumor, which was not actually a tumor but a problem with the scanning system of the machine. The attending physician relays the same information to the patient and begins to draw up a treatment plan. Nobody bothers to question whether the technology used in the test made a mistake. That is because technology is supposed to be infallible and therefore always correct. Human dependence on technology in this case just caused harm to another human being. This type of technology dependence is something that actually happens quite often these days in the medical field. According to Susan Marden (187) of the Mark Hatfield Clinical Research Center; Technology dependence has been defined as reliance on a variety of devices, drugs and procedures to alleviate or remedy acute or chronic health problems. Health professionals must ensure that these technologies result in positive outcomes for those who must rely on them, while minimizin g the potential for unintended consequences. These unintended consquences have a way of creeping into our daily lives. Technological dependence has redefined the way we live our lives. We have at least 2 generations of people who have never spent time playing outdoors, whose minds were never creatively enticed by what they saw in the park of the people they spoke to. Instead, we have a generation or so of people who hide behind their computer
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Hans Rosling's Economic Growth video Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words
Hans Rosling's Economic Growth video - Assignment Example However, as years went on, countries discovered ways of undertaking production through the industrial revolution: They increased their wealth; income person increased thus, an increased life expectancy. The rate of global population growth declined in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s due to the effects of First World War and the Spanish Flu epidemic. This video presents various aspects of development as discussed below: Population growth depends on the economic development of a nation. A developed economy is characterized by a higher rate of income per person, thus improved living standards i.e. reduced rate of disease outbreak and higher life expectancy. However, in the case that a country is poor, with low levels of income per person, the population tends to reduce due high rates of disease outbreaks that cannot be managed properly. This also leads to low life
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Global organizations ethical & cultural issues - Essay Example Such challenges may include ethical and cultural issues that corporations face as they seek to expand their presence in the global arena. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. faces ethical, social responsibility & cultural issues as it seeks to expand its operations outside the United States. Indeed, this research paper addresses and analyzes the cultural, ethical, and social responsibility issues affecting the operations of Wal-Mart outside America. Wal-Mart is a global retail corporation that operates a chain of large retail stores in various formats across the world (Forbes, 2013). The global organization has its headquarters in America and stands out as the largest private employer with more than two million employees across the world. The corporation has about 8500 stores, which operates in 50 states in the United States and in 26 countries across the globe (The New York Times, 2013). The global organization has a low price philosophy, which attracts a wide a customer base (Forbes, 2013). Neve rtheless, with the diversity of its operations and many employees the corporation faces numerous ethical, cultural, and social responsibility issues relating to its operations and workforce. Walmart has been expanding its operations outside US especially to areas where it can establish a strong retail store. The global organization opened retail stores in Japan, Germany, China, and South Korea but faced various cultural issues that limited its success and sometimes led to the closure of such retail stores. Notably, Germany was the first place that Walmart opened its stores outside Europe (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). Nevertheless, cultural issues in Germany grounded its operations. The cultural issues included the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to provide all products and services under one roof as seen in American stores (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). Moreover, the merchandise at the Walmart stores in Germany was inefficient for the customers. The retail store irritated the German customers by placing all the premium products at an eye level and placing the discounted products at the bottom or the top most shelve where customers struggled to get the discounted products (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). Additionally, the WalMartÃ¢â¬â¢s product line in Germany did not suit the shopping and cultural traits of the customers. In fact, the German culture negated the American culture that Walmart propagates in that shoppers opt to shop daily in various local stores dealing in household goods and groceries instead of shopping once a week as Walmart advocates (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). Walmart had issues in satisfying the cultural and shopping habits of a normal German shopper who seeks to the most efficient and limited time in shopping (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). The retail store in Germany mandated customers to spend longer time in shopping to the dismay of the German shoppers. Additionally, the retail store introduced strange management practices that did not conform to the Germa n culture. Indeed, the management requires employees to attend the morning exercise before the shift that annoyed many German employees (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). Furthermore, the store required sales clerks to smile at customers. This negated the German culture where men viewed this as flirting and the German culture viewed the behavior of smiling at strangers as an abnormality (Landler & Barbaro, 2006). In fact, this trend disturbed many German cashiers and derived hard feelings as the smiles were