Sunday, March 15, 2020
Cancer. CancerCancer can be defined as the abnormal growth of cells as they tend to grow rapidly in such a way that the growth cannot be controlled, in some cases this can spread throughout the body. Cancer is not a single disease but a group of many different and distinctive diseases. It has been found that cancer can involve any body tissue and in each area of the body it has many varied forms. Cancers are usually named according to the type of organ or cell in which they attack, such that even if it metastasizes, the evolving tumor assumes the same name as the primary tumor. Research has also shown that the frequency of a particular type of cancer may be determined by gender, for instance prostate cancer affects men while breast cancer affects women. Other cancers such as skin cancer and lung cancer are for both men and women. In the United States lung cancer has been found to be major cause of death for both men and women (Lasser, et al. 2006). It is of great significance for an individual to understand the causes of cancer, for instance, the risk behaviors and substances that can lead to acquisition of cancer. This is because most people indulge in behaviors that put them into vey high risk of developing cancer when they are not aware, such that if they are informed about the causes and dangers of cancer, there is a likelihood of quitting from the risk behaviors. Cancer can be caused by environmental exposure to mutagenic agents, geographical influences, particular lifestyle in a given population setup, and even the use of some drugs Crawshaw (2007). It has been found that certain occupations have been linked with higher risk of developing cancer. This is due to the exposure to mutagenic agents in the immediate environment. For instance, in the 18th century, there was an observation made in a British factory where bladder cancer affected all the men who were involved in distilling 2-napthylamine. In the chimney sweeps, the workers are exposed to coal and tar which brings about the development of scrotal cancer. Leather working, woodworking, and nickel refining have been associated with high risk of particular cancers due to persistent exposure to carcinogenic substances in the chemicals used. Mustard gas, which was used as a chemical warfare agent in the World War I, was found to be very dangerous as it was associated with increased risk of lung cancer and the various cancers along the respiratory tract. The mustard gas possesses mutagenic properties. Since the research showed that this gas was dangerous to the well being of huma n life, until today the gas is no longer in use as a chemical warfare agent. Therefore it is important to be aware of the substances that are associated with development of cancer and keep distance from the same (Pearlin, 1992).Ã Research carried out by Crawshaw (2007), has shown that particular cancers are common in different geographical regions around the world, for instance, among the Japanese men, the cancer of the stomach is 5 to 6 times higher due to the persistent consumption of foods which have undergone fermentation.Ã Among the American women, it has been found that breast cancer is about 20 times higher due to the American diet which contains high fat content, for example the pizza.Ã Among the Africans it has been found that liver cancer is about 10 times higher, and this is associated with increased frequency of Hepatitis B infection. Cancer of the may also develop due to aflatoxin compound which is a food contamination formed by fungi. The compound occurs mostly in grain stores within the tropical and subtropical areas due to high moisture content of grains.Ã Ã Ã Ã The most common example of cancer that is frequent and fatal is lung cancer. Lung cancer can be caused by benzo[a]-pyrene compound which is one the most powerful carcinogens in humans. This compound is found in tobacco smoke which also contains tar. The tar in cigarettes comprises of both initiators and promoters, making it peculiarly dangerous. Alcohol is also dangerous to human life since it acts as a promoter of carcinogenesis just like asbestos does (Calle Kaaks, 2004). References Calle, E. E. Kaaks, R. (2004). Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidenceÃ Ã and proposed mechanisms. Nature Reviews Cancer, 4: 579-591. Crawshaw, P. (October 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Governing the Healthy Male Citizen: Men, masculinity andÃ Popular Health in Ã¢â¬Å"Men's Health.Ã¢â¬ Magazine of Social Science Medicine, Vol. 65,Ã Ã Ã no. 8; p. 1606-18. Lasser, K. E., et. al. (July 2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Access to Care, Health Status, and Health Disparities inÃ the United States and Canada: Results of a Cross-National Population-Based Survey.Ã¢â¬ Ã American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96(7); p. 1300-7. Pearlin, L., I. (1992). Ã¢â¬Å"Structure and Meaning in Medical SociologyÃ¢â¬ Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 33(1), p. 1-9.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Cross Functional Teams Purchasing and Acquisitions Management - Term Paper Example The researcher states that the incidence of M&A has continued to increase significantly during the last decade, both domestically and internationally. The sectors most affected by M&A activity have been service and knowledge-based industries such as banking, insurance, pharmaceuticals, and leisure. Although M &A is a popular means of increasing or protecting market share, the strategy does not always deliver what is expected in terms of increased profitability or economies of scale. While the motives for mergers can variously be described as practical, psychological, or opportunist, the objective of all related M&A is to achieve synergy, or what is commonly referred to as the 2+2 = 5 effect. However, as many organizations learn to their cost, the mere recognition of potential synergy is no guarantee that the combination will actually realize that potential. Most people have difficulty stating their organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy: what the organization wants to become, how it would li ke its people to behave, and what it will provide to which customers. In the future, the reality is that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business and operating units march to priorities different from, if not contradictory to, those implied by its strategy. The majority of the people in an organization focus on day-to-day operational matters and their individual aspirations. Consequently, the strategy is never realized. Frustrated by the lack of forward progress, executives launch new communication, reorganization, process redesign, or technology initiatives. Everyone is doing more, and yet performance stagnates or even declines. AKPMG report found that, though 82% of respondents believed the deal they had transacted was a success, 83% of the same mergers failed to increase shareholder value. Of these transactions, 30% produced no discernible difference in shareholder value and 53% actually reduced value.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Final Assignment Autism - Research Paper Example The knowledge of sources is secondary, because whether autism has genetic, environmental, parental or other causes is less important than the condition; but it is important for instructors to know that autism seems to be such a fundamental learning and mental condition that it is not simply a matter of changing a child's attitude or getting them to open up a little. It is vital that, at the least, instructors understand the painful sensory barrage that autistics are often going through. Different types of autism mean different results. For example: Asperger and Rett are totally different in terms of how they present, their prognosis, appropriate diagnostic tools, and appropriate treatment. Asperger's sufferers have an obsessive interest in individual topics: This makes it very hard to treat them, but also gives a lasso-point to grab onto and pull, a way into their world by understanding what they obsess over. Meanwhile, Rett syndrome occurs suddenly after apparently normal developmen t. Diagnosis and treatment are the most important. In the case of Jack, past diagnosis helped shed light on the present, but we found that, looking at the speech pathologists' report, it may have been time to ramp up his speech therapy. Diagnostic tools over time are particularly helpful, as they start to tell people what can possibly be treated (indicated by large improvements), what is going to be a pernicious and slow-going problem (indicated by small or incremental improvements), and what is simply going to be a losing battle. With Jack, some areas had clearly improved, some areas had only slightly changed, and some areas stayed pretty consistent over time. There is a myth that every autistic is Rain Man, that all have some kind of amazing gift to trade off but are socially impossible. In fact, both parts of this image is inaccurate. Many autistics can improve to the point where they seem very much normal to people, have deep and enduring friendships, and can direct their obsess ive behaviors towards something productive. Many are also totally normal or even below average in various areas of functioning: Not every one is an autistic savant; in fact, autistic savants are quite rare! It is important that people working with autistics at all levels know that not every one of them is a genius ready to be harnessed, but rather a normal child seeking and yearning to have a less painful and more satisfying life. Whatever talents a child has, they are best served by educators and therapists directing them towards healthy social interaction rather than coddling or playing to their
Friday, January 31, 2020
The Death of Ivan Ilych Essay During IlychÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment with the first doctor he consulted about his condition, he noticed that the doctor was a man who considered himself an expert in his turf and who looked down on everybody else as people who knew a lot less and whose lives would be affected by his own choice of moves, acts or decisions. In the role of the patient whose ailment was yet to be specifically identified, Ilych noticed that the doctor he visited Ã¢â¬â and those he subsequently went to, as well Ã¢â¬â personified the public official that he was. Having been serving as the examining magistrate of the town, Ilych was undoubtedly powerful and influential. He could summon any man, whatever his station was Ã¢â¬â rich or poor, educated or ignorant, successful or otherwise Ã¢â¬â to the court, and he could do with them whatever he wanted to do by the decisions that only he could make. He reveled in the control he wielded; he figured out complicated cases and readily saw them as simple knots, and he concluded countless of cases without emotion and using only objectivity, logic and his authority. The outcome of some cases destroyed lives, turned victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ worlds upside down, ended professional careers, broke families, shut down businesses and shattered dreams of many people. Through it all, Ilych was the detached magistrate who could not care less what happened to any of the many participants in the cases he officiated. He was puffed up, callous and undeniably proud. The same arrogance could be found in most other characters in the story; IlychÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues saw nothing in his death but a definite signal of changes in the make-up of their elite circle. They were more concerned with what IlychÃ¢â¬â¢s demise would mean to their respective posts. The same selfishness was demonstrated mostly by everyone. Even IlychÃ¢â¬â¢s wife could not disguise her greed for what she would be entitled to as a widow. On the whole, the story is a sad depiction of how meaningless life can be when lived for the wrong reasons, purposes and goals. The happy bit of a part is brought about by knowing that before he finally drew his last breath, Ilych shook himself free of such wrong values and beliefs Ã¢â¬â he found out that love and concern for others are the things that genuinely lead a person to find happiness. Works Cited Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. Kila, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2004.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Quality Issues In System Development The period between the 1970's and 1980's was a time of great advancement in computer hardware technology which took an industry still in it's infancy, to a level of much sophistication and which ultimately revelutionised the information storage and processing needs of every other industry and that of the entire world. However, it was also during this period when the shortcomings of implementing such technology became apparent. A significant number of development projects failed which resulted with disastrous consequences, not only of an economic nature, but social aswell. Seemingly, although hardware technolgy was readily available and ever improving, what was inhibiting the industry was in the methods of implementing large systems. Consequently, all kinds of limited approaches materialized that avoided the costs and risks inherent in big-systems developments. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Times have changed, and with it our understanding and experience as how best to develop large systems. Today's large systems yield greater benefits for less cost than those of previous decades. Large systems provide better, more timely information, the ability to integrate and correlate internal and external information, the ability to integrate and facilitate streamlined business processes. Unfortunately, not every system that information workers develop are well implemented; this means that the computer system which was originally intended to make a company more efficient, productive and cost-effective, is in the end doing the exact opposite - namely, wasting time, money and valuable manpower. So even with all the lessons learned from the 70's and 80's, our vastly superior methodologies and knowledge of the 90's is still proving to be fallible, as suggested in the following examples. System Development Failures Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Britain, 1993, an incident occurred which forced the London Ambulance Service to abandon its emergency system after it performed disastrously on delivery, causing delays in answering calls. An independent inquiry ordered by British government agencies found that the ambulance service had accepted a suspiciously low bid from a small and inexperienced supplier. The inquiry report, released in February 1993, determined that the system was far too small to cope with the data load. For an emergency service, the system error would not only cause the loss of money, but more essentially, fail to dispatch ambulances correctly and promptly upon the arising of critical situations. Thus, the implications of such a failure are apparently obvious, both socially and economically. Since the failures, the ambulance service has reverted to a paper- based system that will remain in place for the foreseeable future. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another failure was the collapse of the Taurus trading system of the London Stock Exchange. Taurus would have replaced the shuffling of six sorts of
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
The novel Ã¢â¬Å"PassingÃ¢â¬ was written in 1929 and become one of the most famous novels of Nella Larsen. Like other novels which were also written about Ã¢â¬Å"passingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"PassingÃ¢â¬ of Nella Larsen reflects the tough life of African-American in the 19th century, when they were struggling with racism to have the equal rights. Clare Kendry and Irene Redfield in Ã¢â¬Å"PassingÃ¢â¬ both were born Negroes but with light skin so that they could be Ã¢â¬Å"passingÃ¢â¬ . However, these two women have different choices in their life, which lead to the tragedy when they meet each other after twelve years. The novel ends with ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death without revealing to the readers who kills her, which encourages the readers to think of the uncertain end of Ã¢â¬Å"PassingÃ¢â¬ by logically interpreting evidence throughout of the novel. By that way, Nella Larsen might want her readers to be open-minded to understand how people become the victim of inequality and social restriction in term of race and gender. Ending her novel in uncertainty, Nella Larsen makes her readers curious about who is responsible for ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The two possible things might happen are whether Clare commits suicide or Irene pushes her out of the window. Clare has her reasons to commit suicide since her husband finds out that she was born a Negro. For him, all Negroes are Ã¢â¬Å"black scrimy devilsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"always robbing and killing peopleÃ¢â¬ (70). These prejudices exist not only in JackÃ¢â¬â¢s mind but also among many white people. These cruel prejudices and discrimination had threatened ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage for a long time before her death. Clare might be always ready for the day that the truth about her race would take everything from her. When Irene asked her whether she thought of how she could do if her husband finds out about her race, she just said yes with a smile. And at the moment Clare stands near the window, Ã¢â¬Å"she seemed unaware of danger or uncaring. There was even a faint smile on her full, red lips, and in her shining eyesÃ¢â¬ (209). When Clare takes a risk by joining the Negroes community, she might prepare for that day, for her death. However, there are also evidences for the possibility that Irene kills Clare. First, she has the motivation. In IreneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, Clare is one who Ã¢â¬Å"not only that she wanted to have her cake and eat it too, but that she wanted to nibble at the cakes of other folk as wellÃ¢â¬ (88). Before seeing Clare, IreneÃ¢â¬â¢s life keeps going on under her control: a family with a doctor husband and two kids, living in Negroes communityÃ¢â¬ ¦ But Clare comes and raises the fear inside Irene that Clare and Brian, IreneÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, might have an affair. Although Irene doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any clear proofs for what she suspect, but she can feel it through the changing in attitude of Brian: Ã¢â¬Å"For a minute, Irene hesitated, then turned her head, though she knew what it was the held HughÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze. Clare, who had suddenly clouded all her days. Brian, the father of Ted and JuniorÃ¢â¬ ¦then she saw him smile, and the smile made his face all eager, and shining. Ã¢â¬ (169-170). Secondly, the readers can realize how the presence of Clare makes Irene suffers: Ã¢â¬Å"It hurt. It hurt like hellÃ¢â¬ ¦She was very tired of Clare Kendry. She wanted to be free of her. Ã¢â¬ (174-179). The readers also has reason to suspect Irene since she already think of how to get rid of Clare before ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death: Ã¢â¬Å"If Clare should dieÃ¢â¬ ¦To think, yes, to wish thatÃ¢â¬ ¦the thought stayed with her. She could not get rid of itÃ¢â¬ (187). In the party, before Clare falls out from the window, Irene is the one who open it despite of the cold outside. The image of Irene Ã¢â¬Å"watching the tiny spark drop slowly to the white groundÃ¢â¬ makes the readers relates to the falling down of Clare after that (207). At the moment that Clare stands at the window, Irene Ã¢â¬Å"laid a hand on ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s bare arm. One thought possessed her. She couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have Clare Kendry cast aside by Bellew. She couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have her freeÃ¢â¬ (209). And watching Clare falls out from the window, Ã¢â¬Å"Irene wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sorry. She was amazedÃ¢â¬ (210). IreneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought and attitude towards Clare at the moment she falls out from the window proved that Irene, whether responsible for ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death or not, wants Clare to die. Therefore, the readers can suspect that Irene is the one who push Clare out of the window, leading to ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Despite of many clues support for the possibility that Irene kills Clare, the author doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want an obvious end for her novel. She keeps questioning her readers about how much they could trust what they see. Throughout the novel, Nella Larsen expresses her attitude in ridicule of white peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s blindness when they discriminate black people without knowing who they really are. Jack, a racist, marries a Negro woman because he believes in what he sees. Many people witness ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death but nobody could be sure about what they saw. They even suspect Jack since he is the only white people there. By ending the novel in uncertainty, Nella Larsen questions her readers about how they interpret and understand who or what pushes people to death. If there is no racism, Clare would not commit suicide, and Jack wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be suspected just because he is white. Therefore, the most suspicious person would be Irene. If Irene doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any pressure about keeping her life as it must be according to social norms, she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have motivation to kill Clare since she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love Brian: Ã¢â¬Å"She couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t now be sure that she had ever truly known love. Not even for BrianÃ¢â¬ ¦ she still intended to hold fast to the outer shell of her marriage, to keep her life fixed, certainÃ¢â¬ (201). The image of Irene put her hand on ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s bare arms before Clare falling out of the window symbolize for the struggling inside Irene. Irene plays the role of one who could help Clare come back to her community, but she also puts Clare in risk by not telling Clare about Jack seeing Irene with a black woman. Before Clare died, Irene must be the one hold Clare back, but she is also suspicious for killing Irene. The truth isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always revealed in what we see, but also in how we interpret what we know about it, which depends much on our attitude toward it. Nella Larsen let her readers have their own way to think of this uncertain end in order to question their beliefs and their values. This uncertain end of Ã¢â¬Å"PassingÃ¢â¬ also like the uncertainty of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life under various pressures comes from social restriction such as race and gender. ClareÃ¢â¬â¢s death symbolize for people as the victim of inequality and social restriction.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
A Comparison of Shakespeares Sonnet 18 and Duffys Valentine Shakespears attitude towards his lover is she is superior to the summer and very beautiful Shall I compare thee to a summers day? This show Shakespeare is thinking about comparing her to the summer but then he gives examples of how she is better than the summer. He says she is lovelier than the summer Thou art more lovely and more temperate. He then goes on to say Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May this means that she is more like a darling bud of May than a rough wind that come in the summer. He also explains, using a metaphor that the summer doesnt stay forever, but she will be beautiful forever And summers lease hath all too short aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦So long lives this and this gives life to thee. Meaning as long as people are alive can see and read and write her beauty will always live on. Duffys attitude differs from shake spears attitude because she is cynical about love but Shakespeare is more romantic. At the beginning of Valentine it is similar to Sonnet 18 because she decides not to give her lover a traditional Valentine gift because she feels it doesnt show him how she loves him and she wants him to think about their relationship so she decides she will give him an onion. This is similar to sonnet 18 because Shakespeare decides not to do that traditional comparison to describe his lover and Duffy decides not to give her lover the traditional valentine gift. She says the onion is moon wrapped in the brown paper the brown paper is the skin and the flesh of the onion is the moon. She compares the onion to the moon because moonlight is associated with romance and it also